One of the cardinal facts and doctrines of the gospel. If Christ be not risen, our faith is vain (1 Cor. 15:14). The whole of the New Testament revelation rests on this as an historical fact. On the day of Pentecost Peter argued the necessity of Christ’s resurrection from the prediction in Ps. 16 (Acts 2:24–28). In his own discourses, also, our Lord clearly intimates his resurrection (Matt. 20:19; Mark 9:9; 14:28; Luke 18:33; John 2:19–22).
The evangelists give circumstantial accounts of the facts connected with that event, and the apostles, also, in their public teaching largely insist upon it. Ten different appearances of our risen Lord are recorded in the New Testament. They may be arranged as follows:
(1.) To Mary Magdalene at the sepulchre alone. This is recorded at length only by John (20:11–18), and alluded to by Mark (16:9–11).
(2.) To certain women, “the other Mary,” Salome, Joanna, and others, as they returned from the sepulchre. Matthew (28:1–10) alone gives an account of this. (Comp. Mark 16:1–8, and Luke 24:1–11.)
(3.) To Simon Peter alone on the day of the resurrection. (See Luke 24:34; 1 Cor. 15:5.)
(4.) To the two disciples on the way to Emmaus on the day of the resurrection, recorded fully only by Luke (24:13–35. Comp. Mark 16:12, 13).
(5.) To the ten disciples (Thomas being absent) and others “with them,” at Jerusalem on the evening of the resurrection day. One of the evangelists gives an account of this appearance, John (20:19–24).
(6.) To the disciples again (Thomas being present) at Jerusalem (Mark 16:14–18; Luke 24:33–40; John 20:26–28. See also 1 Cor. 15:5).
(7.) To the disciples when fishing at the Sea of Galilee. Of this appearance also John (21:1–23) alone gives an account.
(8.) To the eleven, and above 500 brethren at once, at an appointed place in Galilee (1 Cor. 15:6; comp. Matt. 28:16–20).
(9.) To James, but under what circumstances we are not informed (1 Cor. 15:7).
(10.) To the apostles immediately before the ascension. They accompanied him from Jerusalem to Mount Olivet, and there they saw him ascend “till a cloud received him out of their sight” (Mark 16:19; Luke 24:50–52; Acts 1:4–10).
It is worthy of note that it is distinctly related that on most of these occasions our Lord afforded his disciples the amplest opportunity of testing the fact of his resurrection. He conversed with them face to face. They touched him (Matt. 28:9; Luke 24:39; John 20:27), and he ate bread with them (Luke 24:42, 43; John 21:12, 13).
(11.) In addition to the above, mention might be made of Christ’s manifestation of himself to Paul at Damascus, who speaks of it as an appearance of the risen Saviour (Acts 9:3–9, 17; 1 Cor. 15:8; 9:1).
It is implied in the words of Luke (Acts 1:3) that there may have been other appearances of which we have no record.
The resurrection is spoken of as the act (1) of God the Father (Ps. 16:10; Acts 2:24; 3:15; Rom. 8:11; Eph. 1:20; Col. 2:12; Heb. 13:20); (2) of Christ himself (John 2:19; 10:18); and (3) of the Holy Spirit (1 Peter 3:18).
The resurrection is a public testimony of Christ’s release from his undertaking as surety, and an evidence of the Father’s acceptance of his work of redemption. It is a victory over death and the grave for all his followers.
The importance of Christ’s resurrection will be seen when we consider that if he rose the gospel is true, and if he rose not it is false. His resurrection from the dead makes it manifest that his sacrifice was accepted. Our justification was secured by his obedience to the death, and therefore he was raised from the dead (Rom. 4:25). His resurrection is a proof that he made a full atonement for our sins, that his sacrifice was accepted as a satisfaction to divine justice, and his blood a ransom for sinners. It is also a pledge and an earnest of the resurrection of all believers (Rom. 8:11; 1 Cor. 6:14; 15:47–49; Phil. 3:21; 1 John 3:2). As he lives, they shall live also.
It proved him to be the Son of God, inasmuch as it authenticated all his claims (John 2:19; 10:17). “If Christ did not rise, the whole scheme of redemption is a failure, and all the predictions and anticipations of its glorious results for time and for eternity, for men and for angels of every rank and order, are proved to be chimeras. ‘But now is Christ risen from the dead, and become the first-fruits of them that slept.’ Therefore the Bible is true from Genesis to Revelation. The kingdom of darkness has been overthrown, Satan has fallen as lightning from heaven, and the triumph of truth over error, of good over evil, of happiness over misery is for ever secured.” Hodge.
With reference to the report which the Roman soldiers were bribed (Matt. 28:12–14) to circulate concerning Christ’s resurrection, “his disciples came by night and stole him away while we slept,” Matthew Henry in his “Commentary,” under John 20:1–10, fittingly remarks, “The grave-clothes in which Christ had been buried were found in very good order, which serves for an evidence that his body was not ‘stolen away while men slept.’ Robbers of tombs have been known to take away ‘the clothes’ and leave the body; but none ever took away ‘the body’ and left the clothes, especially when they were ‘fine linen’ and new (Mark 15:46). Any one would rather choose to carry a dead body in its clothes than naked. Or if they that were supposed to have stolen it would have left the grave-clothes behind, yet it cannot be supposed they would find leisure to ‘fold up the linen.’” 
A central doctrine of Christianity that affirms that God raised Jesus from the dead on the third day. Without the resurrection, the apostle Paul declared, Christian preaching and belief are meaningless (1 Cor. 15:14). The resurrection is the point at which God’s intention for Jesus becomes clear (Rom. 1:4) and believers are assured that Jesus is the Christ.
So significant is the resurrection of Jesus that without it there would be no church or Christianity, and we would still be in our sins (1 Cor. 15:17). In spite of the centrality of the resurrection, however, scholars have frequently debated a number of the elements in the resurrection accounts in the New Testament.
Empty Tomb. Some critics argue that because Paul does not speak of an empty tomb, the idea of the resurrection of Jesus must have developed years after His earthly life and ministry was over. But Paul refers to the burial (1 Cor. 15:4), which argues both for a proper tomb and against the body being dumped into a pit or a common criminal’s grave.
Critics have also pointed to variations in the accounts of Jesus’ resurrection in the gospels, such as how many women came to the tomb and who they were. Why did they come: to anoint the body (Mark and Matthew) or to see the tomb (Matthew)? Was there one angel (Mark and Matthew) or were there two (Luke and John) at the tomb? Did the angel say, “He is going before you into Galilee” (Mark and Matthew) or “Remember how He spoke . . . when He was still in Galilee” (Luke)? Did the women say “nothing to anyone” (Mark) or did they report the message to the disciples (Matthew)? (Note that most ancient manuscripts of Mark do not have 16:9–20—a fact noted in many modern English translations.)
It is well to remember that these variations were recognized by early Christians and were not discovered by recent critics. As early as the second century, Tatian wrote his Diatessaron, or harmony of the gospels, expecting that Christians would gladly accept his work as a substitute for the four gospels. But while Christians read Tatian, they refused to substitute his harmony for the witnesses of the four gospel writers. The faithfulness of these writers in transmitting to us the gospel texts is a testimony to Christian integrity. It is also a witness to their early understanding that the gospels were Holy Scripture, inspired by God.
Furthermore, these writers knew the tomb was empty; because if it had not been empty, the body would soon have been supplied. The only other alternative is that the disciples stole the body as the Jews (Matt. 28:13) and some modern critics have suggested. But such a view is self-defeating because the gospel accounts themselves witness to the surprise of both the women and the disciples about the empty tomb.
Moreover, while it may seem incredible to us, the gospel writers generally refrain from using the empty tomb as a basis for faith! Furthermore, the stone was not rolled away to let Jesus out; he did not need open doors to move about (Luke 24:31, 36; John 20:19, 26). The stone was removed to begin communicating the resurrection to the followers of Jesus. But the empty tomb did not convince them that Jesus was alive! It was at first frustrating to the disciples and “seemed to them like idle tales” (Luke 24:11). Would anyone constructing a story and trying to prove the resurrection use such an approach? These testimonies have an element of authenticity that inventors of stories seldom duplicate.
The Appearances. While the above testimonies about the empty tomb seem to have little to do with the faith of these early Christians, the appearances of Jesus are clearly at the heart of early Christian belief. The consistent witness of the New Testament is that in the appearances of Jesus something incredible happened. The two followers in Emmaus, upon realizing it was the risen Jesus, forgot their concern with the lateness of the hour and rushed back to Jerusalem to tell the others (Luke 24:29–33). The doubting Thomas uttered Christianity’s greatest confession when he realized that the risen Christ was actually addressing him (John 20:27). Peter left his fishing nets for good when the risen Savior asked him, “Do you love Me?” (John 21:15). And at a later time (1 Cor. 15:8), the persecutor Paul was transformed into a zealous missionary as the result of a special appearance by the risen Lord (Acts 9:1–22).
But what was the nature of these appearances? Some have suggested that the appearance of Jesus to Paul seemed to be of a spiritual nature, similar to the revelation of Jesus to Christians today. Since Paul lumps all of the appearances together in 1 Corinthians 15:5–8, these critics argue that all the appearances must be spiritual in nature. They reject the idea that the risen Jesus could be touched (Matt. 28:9; Luke 24:39; John 20:27) or that He could eat (Luke 24:41–42).
Such a line of argument not only judges the witnesses on the basis of rationalistic assumptions, but it flies in the face of Paul’s own admission that his experience was somewhat irregular. Another approach is that advocated by the German theologian Rudolph Bultmann, who speaks of an “Easter faith” of the disciples rather than an actual bodily resurrection of Jesus. Accordingly, he splits the Jesus of history from the spiritual experience of the Christ of faith.
But when the New Testament writers speak of the resurrection of Jesus, they are bearing witness not to what God did for them but what God did to Jesus. Certainly, as a result of the resurrection of Jesus human lives were transformed. For Paul this transformation of Christians is not termed resurrection but salvation. “In Christ” is the expression Paul uses for the spiritual experience of the living Christ.
Finally, the resurrection of Jesus, His exaltation to the right hand of the Father (Acts 2:33), and the giving of the Spirit (John 20:22) are all to be seen as a single complex of events. Although the elements may be viewed as separate happenings, the New Testament writers see them as closely integrated theologically. Together they represent the firstfruits of the new age.
Definition # 3
Historical event whereby Jesus came back from physical death to newness of life with a glorified body, never to die again. The bodily resurrection of Jesus is one of the central tenets of the Christian faith. His bodily resurrection validates the claim that He is both Lord and Christ. It substantiates the proposition that His life and death were not just the life and death of a good man but that He indeed was God incarnate and that by His death we have forgiveness of sin.
The four Gospels are selective in the events they report surrounding the resurrection. Each emphasizes the empty tomb, but each is somewhat different in the postresurrection appearances recounted.
Mark’s Gospel Mark’s account is the briefest, containing only eight verses, if the shorter ending of Mark is accepted as authentic. The focus of his account is on the women’s discovery of the empty tomb (Mark 16:1–4), the announcement of the resurrection by a young man wearing a white robe, and Jesus’ promise to meet them in Galilee (16:5–7). The women’s response is one of fear and awe (16:8).
Matthew’s Gospel Matthew’s report is 20 verses long. He emphasizes three aspects: the empty tomb, his answer to the false accusation that the disciples stole the body, and the Great Commission. Matthew recounts only two resurrection appearances: first, to the women as they fled the empty tomb, and then to the Eleven in Galilee. His account is in four scenes. The first takes place at the empty tomb and involves Mary Magdalene, the “other Mary,” a violent earthquake, the appearance of an angel, the paralyzing fear of the guards, and an admonition to tell the disciples that Jesus is alive (Matt. 28:1–7). The second describes Jesus’ encounter with the women after they fled the tomb (28:8–10). The third is a description of the religious leaders’ attempt to cover up the events at the tomb (28:11–15). The fourth takes place in Galilee and concludes with Jesus giving the Great Commission (28:16–20).
Luke’s Gospel Luke’s record is 53 verses in length. His account consists of a series of resurrection appearances of Jesus ending with Jesus’ ascension. All resurrection appearances in Luke are in Jerusalem. Luke has at least three aims: first, presenting the historical facts (cp. Luke 1:1–4), describing how the unbelieving disciples came to believe in the resurrection by emphasizing the physical nature of Jesus’ resurrected body (24:30, 37–43); second, to show that Jesus’ death and resurrection fulfill OT prophecy (24:25–27, 32); and third, to show that the disciples are to preach the gospel in the power of the Spirit to all the nations (24:46–49). The material is in four vignettes. The first involves the women’s discovery of the empty tomb and the investigation of the tomb by Peter and John (24:1–12). The second, the longest, is Jesus’ appearance to two disciples on the road to Emmaus. The third is Jesus’ appearance to the disciples during the evening of resurrection Sunday. The fourth is Jesus’ final instructions to His followers at His ascension (24:50–53; cp. Acts 1:9–11).
John’s Gospel John’s resurrection account is the longest, extending two full chapters. John records three appearances in Jerusalem: the first to Mary Magdalene at the empty tomb (20:1–18) and the other two appearances to the disciples, once with Thomas absent (John 20:19–25) and once with Thomas present (20:26–29). Jesus’ Jerusalem appearances conclude with Thomas’ great confession, “My Lord and my God” (John 20:28). Like Luke, John focuses on the corporeality of Jesus (20:17, 20, 25–27). The appearance in chapter 21 takes place in Galilee. His purpose seems to be to describe the reestablishing of Peter’s leadership (21:15–19) and to expel the rumor that John, the disciple “whom Jesus loved” (13:23 HCSB) would not die before Jesus’ return.
A cursory reading of the resurrection accounts in the four Gospels reveals a wide variety of material. Admittedly, any attempt at harmonization of the accounts is speculative, and dogmatism must be avoided. It is impossible to know which, if any, of them is correct, but each shows a possible arrangement of events in a credible sequence. The problem of varying accounts, however, is not confined to events surrounding the resurrection; problems arising from differences in details from various sources have attended almost every event in history. The variances in the scriptural accounts suggest independent witnesses rather than the repetition of an “official” party line.
Paul’s Account The oldest account of the resurrection is found in 1 Cor. 15. In that passage Paul recounted a number of postresurrection appearances. He established that the believer’s future resurrection is based on the historicity of Christ’s bodily resurrection. However, the authenticity of Christ’s resurrection is greatly debated.
Response of Critics Since the 19th century scholars have questioned the historicity of the resurrection of Jesus. Some have argued that the women and disciples went to the wrong tomb. The problem with this argument is that the Jewish leadership could have presented the corpse of Jesus in response to the proclamation of the resurrection. Surely they knew the location of the tomb. Another proposed alternative is that the disciples stole the body of Jesus. It is unlikely that the disciples would have stolen the body and thereby invented a story for which they were willing to suffer persecution and martyrdom. Still others contend that Jesus never really died on the cross but He merely “swooned” and later in the coolness of the tomb revived enough to escape. This proposal fails to take seriously the severe beatings Jesus endured, the horrific process of crucifixion, the recognition by a centurion that He was dead (Mark 15:39), as well as the piercing of His side to confirm His death (John 19:32–34). Another suggestion by skeptics is that Jesus continued to live after His crucifixion in some “spiritual” sense but that this did not involve a bodily resurrection. However, the biblical evidence for corporeality is very strong (Luke 24:40–43; John 20:27). Finally, some scholars have compared the resurrection appearances to hallucinations. However, the NT gives evidence of appearances in various places to numerous people, even 500 at one time (1 Cor. 15:6). This proposal also fails to acknowledge that the disciples were psychologically unprepared for the resurrection and actually disbelieved the initial reports.
The evidence in favor of the historicity of the bodily resurrection of Jesus is very strong. The evidence for the empty tomb is weighty. First, the story of the empty tomb is found in all four Gospels and is implicit in the early church’s proclamation of the resurrection. How could they preach the bodily resurrection of Jesus if everyone in Jerusalem knew that His body was still in the tomb? Second, it is difficult to believe that the early church would have fabricated the story of the resurrection and then made women the first witnesses to the empty tomb and the resurrection, since women were not considered reliable witnesses in Jewish culture (illustrated by the disciple’s response to them). Third, something incredible must have taken place on that Sunday to cause Jewish believers to begin worshiping on the first day of the week instead of the Sabbath (Acts 20:7; 1 Cor. 16:2; Rev. 1:10). Finally, nothing short of the miracle of the resurrection can explain the postresurrection transformation in the disciples. The biblical record indicates that at the time of Jesus’ arrest they all fled (Mark 14:50). When the women reported that they had seen Jesus, the men did not believe (Luke 24:11), yet these same men were later willing to suffer persecution and martyrdom in order to preach Jesus as the resurrected Lord. See Ascension; Christ, Christology; Jesus Christ; Resurrection.
Topic: Jesus Christ, resurrection appearances of
Jesus Christ appeared to various groups and individuals on several occasions after his death, prior to his ascension into heaven.
The resurrection appearances of Jesus Christ on the third day
To Mary Magdalene Jn 20:10-18 See also Mk 16:9-11
To the women at the tomb Mt 28:1-10 pp Mk 16:1-8 pp Lk 24:1-12
To Peter Lk 24:34; 1Co 15:5
To the two travellers to Emmaus Mk 16:12-13; Lk 24:13-16,30-32
To the disciples in the upper room Mk 16:14 pp Lk 24:36 pp Jn 20:19
Further appearances of Jesus Christ
To the disciples in the upper room See also Jn 20:26; 1Co 15:5
Other appearances Jn 21:1 See also Mt 28:16-17; 1Co 15:6-7
Jesus Christ appears at his ascension Mk 16:19; Lk 24:50-51; Ac 1:9
Jesus Christ’s resurrection body
It was different from his pre-crucifixion body Jn 20:26 This suggests that the resurrected body of Jesus Christ was not restricted by natural laws: closed doors provided no barrier to Jesus Christ’s bodily appearance to his disciples. See also Mk 16:12 The failure to recognise Jesus Christ may be an indication of his changed appearance but also might emphasise the disciples’ own sorrow and lack of faith; Jn 20:14,19 pp Lk 24:36
It was a body of flesh and blood Lk 24:39 See also Lk 24:42-43; Jn 20:20
Jesus Christ foretold his resurrection appearances
Responses to Jesus Christ’s resurrection appearances
Fear and alarm Lk 24:37 See also Mt 28:10
Doubt and disbelief Mk 16:11 See also Mt 28:17; Mk 16:13-14; Lk 24:11-12; Jn 20:9,13-14,25
Belief and joy Mt 28:8 See also Lk 24:31-32,41; Jn 20:16,18,27-29
Understanding and worship Mt 28:9 See also Lk 24:8,45-47; Jn 2:22; Ac 2:31-33
The significance of Jesus Christ’s resurrection appearances
They gave proof of Jesus Christ’s deity Jn 20:28-29 See also Lk 24:31-34; Jn 20:8; Ac 10:41-42
Christian life and faith depend on the trustworthiness of the witnesses’ testimony 1Co 15:17 See also Jn 20:31; Ac 3:15; Ro 1:4; 1Co 15:1-58; 1Th 4:14; 1Pe 1:3
Topic: Jesus Christ, resurrection of
True Christian preaching is centred on the fact that God raised Jesus Christ from the dead so that believers may have victory over sin and death and receive the blessings of eternal life.
The resurrection of Jesus Christ is foretold
In Scripture 1Co 15:3-4 See also Ps 16:10; 49:15; Isa 53:10-12; Hos 6:2; Lk 24:46; Ac 2:29-31; 26:22-23
By Jesus Christ Mt 16:21 pp Mk 8:31 pp Lk 9:22 See also Mt 12:40 the sign of Jonah; Mt 17:9 pp Mk 9:9 the transfiguration; Mt 17:22-23 pp Mk 9:31; Mt 20:18-19 pp Mk 10:33-34 pp Lk 18:31-33; Mt 26:32 pp Mk 14:28; Jn 2:19-22 Jesus Christ clears the temple; Jn 16:16
The resurrection is preached by the apostles
Ac 4:33 See also Ac 2:24-32; 10:40-41; 17:2-3,18,31
The certainty of the resurrection
Ac 1:3 See also 1Co 15:3-8
These verses particularly stress the physical reality of the risen Christ: Lk 24:36-43; Jn 20:26-28
The necessity of the resurrection
1Co 15:17 See also Jn 20:9
The results of Jesus Christ’s resurrection
God’s power is demonstrated Eph 1:19-20 See also Ac 2:24; 1Co 6:14
The sonship of Jesus Christ is declared Ro 1:4 See also Ac 13:33
The lordship of Jesus Christ is declared Ro 14:9
The lordship of Jesus Christ is seen in that he was raised to the right hand of God: Ac 5:30-31; Eph 1:20-22
The destruction of death’s power is declared Rev 1:18 See also Ac 2:24; Ro 6:9
The benefits of Jesus Christ’s resurrection for believers
It is the foundation of salvation Ro 4:25 See also Jn 11:25-26; Ro 10:9; 1Pe 1:21; 3:21
It provides the power to live for God Ro 6:4 See also Ro 7:4; 8:11; Eph 2:4-7; Php 3:8-11; Col 2:12; 3:1; Heb 13:20-21
The intercession of Jesus Christ depends upon it Ro 8:34 See also Heb 7:25
It brings assurance of resurrection to eternal life 1Co 6:14 See also Ro 6:5; 1Co 15:20-22; 2Co 4:14; 1Th 4:14; 1Pe 1:3-4
Theme: Resurrection of Christ, The
1. Foretold by the prophets. Ps 16:10; Ac 13:34,35; Isa 26:19.
2. Foretold by Himself. Mt 20:19; Mr 9:9; 14:28; Joh 2:19-22.
3. Was necessary to
a. The fulfilment of Scripture. Lu 24:45,46.
b. Forgiveness of sins. 1Co 15:17.
c. Justification. Ro 4:25; 8:34.
d. Hope. 1Co 15:19.
e. The efficacy of preaching. 1Co 15:14.
f. The efficacy of faith. 1Co 15:14,17.
4. A proof of his being the Son of God. Ps 2:7; Ac 13:33; Ro 1:4.
5. Effected by
a. The power of God. Ac 2:24; 3:15; Ro 8:11; Eph 1:20; Col 2:12.
b. His own power. Joh 2:19; 10:18.
c. The power of the Holy Spirit. 1Pe 3:18.
6. On the first day of the week. Mr 16:9.
7. On the third day after his death. Mr 16:9.
8. On the third day after His death. Lu 24:46; Ac 10:40; 1Co 15:4.
9. The apostles
a. At first did not understand the predictions respecting. Mr 9:10; Joh 20:9.
b. Very slow to believe. Mr 16:13; Lu 24:9,11,37,38.
c. Reproved for their unbelief of. Mr 16:14.
10. He appeared after to
a. Mary Magdalene. Mr 16:9; Joh 20:18.
b. The women. Mt 28:9.
c. Simon Peter. Lu 24:34.
d. Two disciples. Lu 24:13-31.
e. Apostles, except Thomas. Joh 20:19,24.
f. Apostles, Thomas being present. Joh 20:26.
g. Apostles at the sea of Tiberias. Joh 21:1.
h. Apostles in Galilee. Mt 28:16,17.
i. About five hundred brethren. 1Co 15:6.
j. James. 1Co 15:7.
k. All the Apostles. Lu 24:51; Ac 1:9; 1Co 15:7.
l. Paul. 1Co 15:8.
11. Fraud impossible in. Mt 27:63-66.
12. He gave many infallible proofs of. Lu 24:35,39,43; Joh 20:20,27; Ac 1:3.
13. Was attested by
a. Angels. Mt 28:5-7; Lu 24:4-7,23.
b. Apostles. Ac 1:22; 2:32; 3:15; 4:33.
c. His enemies. Mt 28:11-15.
14. Asserted and preached by the Apostles. Ac 25:19; 26:23.
a. Begotten to a lively hope. 1Pe 1:3,21.
b. Desire to know the power of. Php 3:10.
c. Should keep, in remembrance. 2Ti 2:8.
d. Shall rise in the likeness of. Ro 6:5; 1Co 15:49; Php 3:21.
16. Is an emblem of the new birth. Ro 6:4; Col 2:12.
17. The first-fruits of our resurrection. Ac 26:23; 1Co 15:20,23.
18. The truth of the gospel involved in. 1Co 15:14,15.
19. Followed by his exaltation. Ac 4:10,11; Ro 8:34; Eph 1:20; Php 2:9,10; Re 1:18.
20. An assurance of the judgment. Ac 17:31.
a. Isaac. Ge 22:13; Heb 11:19.
b. Jonah. Jon 2:10; Mt 12:40.
 Easton, M. G. (1893). Easton’s Bible dictionary. New York: Harper & Brothers.
 Nelson’s new illustrated Bible dictionary. 1995 (R. F. Youngblood, F. F. Bruce, R. K. Harrison & Thomas Nelson Publishers, Ed.). Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, Inc.
 Cook, B. (2003). Resurrection of Jesus the Christ. In C. Brand, C. Draper, A. England, S. Bond, E. R. Clendenen & T. C. Butler (Eds.), Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary (C. Brand, C. Draper, A. England, S. Bond, E. R. Clendenen & T. C. Butler, Ed.) (1381–1382). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
 Manser, M. H. (2009). Dictionary of Bible Themes: The Accessible and Comprehensive Tool for Topical Studies. London: Martin Manser.
 Torrey, R. (2001). The new topical text book: A scriptural text book for the use of ministers, teachers, and all Christian workers. Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Bible Software.