Being justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus.
When God justifies a sinner everything in God is on the sinner’s side. All the attributes of God are on the sinner’s side. It isn’t that mercy is pleading for the sinner and justice is trying to beat him to death, as we preachers sometimes make it sound. All of God does all that God does. When God looks at a sinner and sees him there unatoned for (he won’t accept the atonement; he thinks it doesn’t apply to him), the moral situation is such that justice says he must die. And when God looks at the atoned-for sinner, who in faith knows he’s atoned for and has accepted it, justice says he must live! The unjust sinner can no more go to heaven than the justified sinner can go to hell. Oh friends, why are we so still? Why are we so quiet? We ought to rejoice and thank God with all our might! AOG071
With all my might I praise You, gracious God, that I have been justified freely by Your grace in Christ Jesus. Why are we so still, indeed! Amen. 
Righteousness Is Given Freely Through Grace
king justified as a gift by His grace (3:24a)
By the same token, no one is ahead of anyone else as far as salvation is concerned. Being justified refers back to the “alls” of the previous two verses-all those who have believed, of whom all were sinful. Just as there is no distinction among those who need salvation, there is no distinction among those who receive it, because they all are justified as a gift by His grace.
Dikaioō (justified) means to declare the rightness of something or someone. Justification is God’s declaration that all the demands of the law are fulfilled on behalf of the believing sinner through the righteousness of Jesus Christ. Justification is a wholly forensic, or legal, transaction. It changes the judicial standing of the sinner before God. In justification, God imputes the perfect righteousness of Christ to the believer’s account, then declares the redeemed one fully righteous. Justification must be distinguished from sanctification, in which God actually imparts Christ’s righteousness to the sinner. While the two must be distinguished, justification and sanctification can never be separated. God does not justify whom He does not sanctify.
Yet God justifies believers as a gift by His grace, not because of any good thing in the one who is justified.
By definition, a gift is something given freely, unearned and unmerited by the recipient. God’s greatest of all gifts is that of salvation through His Son, given completely out of His divine grace. “If righteousness comes through the Law,” that is, through human fulfillment of God’s divine standard, Paul declares, “then Christ died needlessly” (Gal. 2:21).
The law reveals God’s righteousness and exposes man’s unrighteousness. Grace, on the other hand, not only reveals God’s righteousness but actually gives His righteousness to those who trust in His Son. That gift of grace cost God the suffering and death of His own Son on the cross, so that, for the believer, there is nothing left to pay.
Righteousness Is Accomplished by Redemption
through the redemption which is in Christ Jesus; (3:24b)
Apolutrōsis (redemption) is a strengthened form of lutros̄is, which carries the idea of delivering, especially by means of paying a price. It was commonly used of paying a ransom to free a prisoner from his captors or paying the price to free a slave from his master.
Because of man’s utter sinfulness and inability to bring himself up to the standard of God’s righteousness, the redemption of a sinner could come only by that which is in Christ Jesus. Only the sinless Savior could pay the price to redeem sinful men.
24 At first glance, it seems that Paul is committing himself to a doctrine of universal salvation, that all who have sinned are likewise justified. This impression is certainly incorrect. The problem can be handled in one of two ways: (1) to suppose that the reader is intended to supply something along this line: “Since all have sinned, all must be justified—if they are to be saved—by God’s free grace”; or (2) to understand the last phrase in v. 22 and all of v. 23 as semiparenthetical, so that the words “to all who believe” (v. 22) are followed directly by “are justified freely by his grace” (v. 24).
In the word “justified,” we encounter perhaps the leading doctrinal contribution of Romans. How to be just in God’s sight is the age-old human problem (Job 9:2; 10:14). To get at the meaning of the doctrine, some attention must be given to terminology. In classical Greek the verb dikaioō (GK 1467) was sometimes used to mean “do right by a person, give him justice.” As a result, it could be used in the sense of “condemn.” But in its biblical setting it is used in the opposite sense, namely, “to acquit” (Ex 23:7; Dt 25:1). It is clear both from the OT and the NT that dikaioō is a forensic term—it is the language of the law court. But to settle on “acquittal” as the meaning of justification is to express only a part of the range of the word, even though an important part (Ac 13:39).
There is a positive side that is even more prominent in NT usage—“to consider, or declare to be, righteous.” The word does not mean “to make righteous,” i.e., to effect a change of character. Some consider it ethically deplorable that God should count as righteous those who have been and to some extent continue to be sinful. E. J. Goodspeed’s translation, for example, defied the linguistic evidence and rendered dikaioō as “to make upright.” Goodspeed failed to realize that the question of character and conduct belongs to a different area, namely, sanctification, and is taken up by Paul in due course, whereas justification relates to status and not to condition.
In the background is the important consideration, strongly emphasized by Paul, that the believer is “in Christ.” This key Pauline concept is a truth that will be unfolded at a later stage in Paul’s presentation and summarized by him in 8:1 (cf. 1 Co 1:30; 2 Co 5:21). Nowhere is the relation between justification and being “in Christ” better stated than in Paul’s declaration, “that I may gain Christ and be found in him, not having a righteousness of my own that comes from the law, but that which is through faith in Christ” (Php 3:8–9). To be justified includes the truth that God sees the sinner in terms of the sinner’s relation to his Son, with whom he is well pleased.
Though justification has much in common with forgiveness, the two terms ought not to be regarded as interchangeable. Even though forgiveness of sins can be stated in comprehensive fashion (e.g., Eph 1:7; 4:32), its continuing aspect, related to the ongoing confession of sin (1 Jn 1:9), sets it somewhat apart from justification, which is a once-for-all declaration of God in behalf of the believing sinner. The surprise for Paul was that God declares a person “righteous at the beginning of the course, not at the end of it” (Bruce, 102).
Sinners are justified “as a gift” (dōrean, GK 1562; NASB; NIV, “freely”). The same word is used in John 15:25, where it bears a somewhat different but not unrelated meaning—“without reason.” God finds no reason, no basis, in sinners for declaring them righteous. He must find the cause in himself. This truth goes naturally with the observation that justification is offered “by [God’s] grace.” Perhaps the best synonym we have for it is “lovingkindness” (NASB; NIV, “love”; see, e.g., Pss 23:6; 36:5; 130). It is a matter not simply of attitude but also of action, as the present verse attests. “Grace” (charis, GK 5921) lies at the basis of joy (chara, GK 5915) for the believer and leads to thanksgiving (eucharistia, GK 2374).
If justification is a matter of “gift,” with grace as its basis, “the redemption that came by Christ Jesus” is the means a gracious God employed to achieve this great salvation. With the word “redemption” (apolytrōsis, GK 667), Paul employs the language of the slave market, namely the manumission of slaves. The benefit redemption brings in this life, according to Ephesians 1:7, is forgiveness of sins, and this is applicable in our passage. Another aspect, belonging to the future, is the redemption of the body, which will consummate our salvation (Ro 8:23; cf. Eph 4:30).
3:24 Being justified freely by His grace. The gospel tells how God justifies sinners as a free gift and by an act of unmerited favor. But what do we mean when we speak of the act of justifying?
The word justify means to reckon or declare to be righteous. For example, God pronounces a sinner to be righteous when that sinner believes on the Lord Jesus Christ. This is the way the word is most often used in the NT.
However, a man can justify God (see Luke 7:29) by believing and obeying God’s word. In other words, he declares God to be righteous in all that God says and does.
And, of course, a man can justify himself; that is, he can protest his own righteousness (see Luke 10:29). But this is nothing but a form of self-deception.
To justify does not mean to actually make a person righteous. We cannot make God righteous; He already is righteous. But we can declare Him to be righteous. God does not make the believer sinless or righteous in himself. Rather, God puts righteousness to his account. As A. T. Pierson put it, “God in justifying sinners actually calls them righteous when they are not—does not impute sin where sin actually exists, and does impute righteousness where it does not exist.”
A popular definition of justification is just as if I’d never sinned. But this does not go far enough. When God justifies the believing sinner, He not only acquits him from guilt but clothes him in His own righteousness and thus makes him absolutely fit for heaven. “Justification goes beyond acquittal to approval; beyond pardon to promotion.” Acquittal means only that a person is set free from a charge. Justification means that positive righteousness is imputed.
The reason God can declare ungodly sinners to be righteous is because the Lord Jesus Christ has fully paid the debt of their sins by His death and resurrection. When sinners accept Christ by faith, they are justified.
When James teaches that justification is by works (Jas. 2:24), he does not mean that we are saved by good works, or by faith plus good works, but rather by the kind of faith that results in good works.
It is important to realize that justification is a reckoning that takes place in the mind of God. It is not something a believer feels; he knows it has taken place because the Bible says so. C. I. Scofield expressed it this way: “Justification is that act of God whereby He declares righteous all who believe in Jesus. It is something which takes place in the mind of God, not in the nervous system or emotional nature of the believer.”
Here in Romans 3:24 the apostle teaches that we are justified freely. It is not something we can earn or purchase, but rather something that is offered as a gift.
Next we learn that we are justified … by God’s grace. This simply means that it is wholly apart from any merit in ourselves. As far as we are concerned, it is undeserved, unsought, and unbought.
In order to avoid confusion later on, we should pause here to explain that there are six different aspects of justification in the NT. We are said to be justified by grace, by faith, by blood, by power, by God, and by works; yet there is no contradiction or conflict.
We are justified by grace—that means we do not deserve it.
We are justified by faith (Rom. 5:1)—that means that we have to receive it by believing on the Lord Jesus Christ.
We are justified by blood (Rom. 5:9)—that refers to the price the Savior paid in order that we might be justified.
We are justified by power (Rom. 4:24, 25)—the same power that raised the Lord Jesus from the dead.
We are justified by God (Rom. 8:33)—He is the One who reckons us righteous.
We are justified by works (Jas. 2:24)—not meaning that good works earn justification, but that they are the evidence that we have been justified.
Returning to 3:24, we read that we are justified through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus. Redemption means buying back by payment of a ransom price. The Lord Jesus bought us back from the slave market of sin. His precious blood was the ransom price which was paid to satisfy the claims of a holy and righteous God. If someone asks, “To whom was the ransom paid?” he misses the point. The Scriptures nowhere suggest that a specific payment was made either to God or to Satan. The ransom was not paid to anyone but was an abstract settlement that provided a righteous basis by which God could save the ungodly.
Bought with a Price
… justified freely by his grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus.
On September 17, 1915, the distinguished Professor of Didactic and Polemic Theology at Princeton Theological Seminary, Benjamin Breckinridge Warfield, stood in Miller Chapel to deliver an address to the newly arrived students. The subject had been announced: “ ‘Redeemer’ and ‘Redemption,’ ” and the young men were probably prepared for a difficult and weighty presentation. Instead Warfield talked about how wonderful the two words Redeemer and redemption are.
“There is no one of the titles of Christ which is more precious to Christian hearts than ‘Redeemer,’ ” the professor began. True, other titles are more often on our lips: “Lord,” “Savior,” others. But “Redeemer” is more intimate and therefore more precious. Warfield explained:
It gives expression not merely to our sense that we have received salvation from [Jesus], but also to our appreciation of what it cost him to procure this salvation for us. It is the name specifically of the Christ of the cross. Whenever we pronounce it, the cross is placarded before our eyes and our hearts are filled with loving remembrance not only that Christ has given us salvation but that he paid a mighty price for it.
How do we know this is true? In proof of his statement, Warfield appealed, not to great works of theology dealing with the cross—though there are many of them—but to the church’s hymnody. Many of the hymns in the hymnbook used that day at Princeton celebrated the Lord as Redeemer, and Warfield listed them:
Let our whole soul an offering be
To our Redeemer’s name;
While we pray for pardoning grace,
Through our Redeemer’s name;
Almighty Son, Incarnate Word,
Our Prophet, Priest, Redeemer, Lord; …
O for a thousand tongues to sing
My dear Redeemer’s praise; …
All hail, Redeemer, hail,
For thou hast died for me; …
All glory, laud and honor
To thee Redeemer, King.
Those are only six of the hymns he listed. He cited twenty-eight. But then, in case the students had missed his point, he did the same thing all over again with the words ransom and ransomed, which are near synonyms of “redeem” and “redeemed.” He found twenty-five examples.
“Redemption” and “Redeemer” are the words to which we now come in our phrase-by-phrase exposition of Romans 3:21–31—“God’s Remedy in Christ.” We have outlined the passage by citing four great doctrines found in it: (1) the righteousness of God, (2) grace, (3) redemption, and (4) faith, by which these blessings are conveyed to the individual. This is the third doctrine. It is most precious to us, because it describes what the Lord Jesus Christ did for us by dying.
A Misunderstood Doctrine
In his address Warfield spoke of the “cost” of redemption. But here a problem develops for some people. “Isn’t salvation supposed to be free?” they ask. “Haven’t you just talked about grace, the unmerited favor of God toward us? Salvation can’t be bought or sold. If you talk about God extracting a price for his favor, you make God cheap, begrudging, and mercenary. How can anyone believe that this is accurate?”
Because of such reasoning some scholars have tried to change the meaning of “Redeemer” and “redemption” from what I have suggested these words mean (and do mean) to something more like “release” or “deliverance,” that is, to the process of setting someone free without any idea of paying a price for it. They point to Luke 24:21 in which the Emmaus disciples used the word redeem in their conversation with Jesus, saying, “We had hoped that he was the one who was going to redeem Israel.” Obviously they were thinking of a political deliverance, not a commercial transaction. Or they point to Ephesians 1:14, “… a deposit guaranteeing our inheritance until the redemption of those who are God’s possession.” They argue that there is no suggestion of a price in that statement. Rather, it is speaking only of our deliverance from the power of sin at the return of Christ.
Three Great Words
How should we respond to this objection? There are a number of ways. We could point out that the Emmaus disciples obviously misunderstood the nature of Christ’s redemptive work. We could emphasize that, although redemption includes the idea of deliverance and is a word sometimes used for “deliverance,” it is nevertheless a larger and more embracing concept. We might observe that, even though in the Bible a price for redemption is paid, it is never a case of our paying for redemption—we have no means of paying for it—but rather of God’s paying the price in Christ, so that salvation might be free for us.
These points are all valid. Nevertheless, in my judgment, the best way of getting to the meaning of redemption is by a careful examination of the biblical words used for it. There are three Greek words, plus two important Hebrew words or concepts.
The first Greek word is agorazō. It comes from the noun used to describe an open marketplace in Greek-speaking lands, an agora. An agora is where all sorts of things—wine, grain and oil, pottery, silver and gold ornaments, horses, slaves, clothing and household wares—were bought and sold. The verb agorazō, which is based upon the word agora, meant “to buy” something in such a marketplace. Clearly a price was involved. Not long ago I discovered that the Greek Orthodox community of Philadelphia was using the word for an annual outdoor bazaar at which those of Greek descent raise money for their church. It is advertised as “A Greek Agora.” Agorazō suggests that Christ’s saving work involves his purchasing us for himself in this world’s marketplace.
The second Greek word for “redemption” is related closely to the first. It is exagorazō. Clearly it is only the first word with the addition of the prefix ex, which means “out of.” So exagorazō means “to buy out of the marketplace,” with the idea that the object or person purchased might never have to return there again.
It is hard to illustrate this in terms of contemporary purchases. The closest we can come is redeeming an object from a pawnshop. But if we remember that in the ancient world some of the chief objects of commerce were slaves and that slaves could be purchased out of the marketplace (redeemed) by the payment of a price, this becomes a rich idea for us. According to the Bible, we are all slaves to sin. By ourselves we cannot escape from this slavery. But Jesus has freed us. He has done it by paying the price of our redemption by his blood. That is why Peter writes, “For you know that it was not with perishable things such as silver or gold that you were redeemed from the empty way of life handed down to you from your forefathers, but with the precious blood of Christ, a lamb without blemish or defect” (1 Peter 1:18–19). Here the idea of Christ’s death being the cost or price of our redemption is inescapable.
The third pertinent Greek word is actually a group of words based on the root verb yō. They carry further the idea of being purchased out of the marketplace, for the chief thought of these words is “to loose” or “to set free.” These words have an interesting development. Yō itself meant only “to loose or loosen,” as in taking off a suit of clothes or unbuckling one’s armor. When used of persons, it signified loosening bonds so that, for example, a prisoner might be released. It was usually necessary to pay a ransom price to free a prisoner, however. So in time a second word developed from yō to signify this “ransom price.” It was lytroō. From it another verb developed: lytrõ which, like yō, meant “to loose” or “to set free” but, unlike yō, always meant to free by paying the redemption price. From these last two words the proper Greek term for redemption came about: lytrōsis (and the cognate word apolytrōsis). These words always had to do with freeing a slave by paying for him. In Christian vocabulary they mean that Jesus freed us from sin’s slavery by his death. Thus:
Long my imprisoned spirit lay
Fast bound in sin and nature’s night;
Thine eye diffused a quick’ning ray,
I woke, the dungeon flamed with light:
My chains fell off, my heart was free,
I rose, went forth and followed thee.
As long as we know that the death of the Lord Jesus Christ accomplished that, we will love him for being our Redeemer.
Old Testament Background
Important as a study of these Greek words for redemption may be, it is nevertheless true that the richest words for understanding the redemptive work of Christ are in the Old Testament. I refer here to two of them.
First, kōpher, which, like lytron, means “a ransom price.” But it is richer than the Greek idea, because it refers to the redemption of a person who, apart from that redemption, would die. Let me explain. Suppose a person in Old Testament times owned an ox that had gored somebody to death. Under certain circumstances (we might describe this as manslaughter rather than homicide), the owner of the ox would be fined. But suppose there had been negligence. Suppose the ox was known to be dangerous and the owner had failed to secure the animal properly. In this case the owner of the ox could be killed. That is, he would have to forfeit his life for the one whose life had been taken. There would be little to be gained by one more death, of course. So Old Testament law provided a way by which, if the owner could come to an agreement with the relatives of the dead man, it would be possible for him to pay a ransom price, an indemnity, instead of dying. This ransom price was called the kōpher.
As I say, this term enriches our understanding of what the Lord Jesus Christ did in dying for us. For it is not only that in some way his death freed us from sin’s power. Christ did deliver us from sin’s power, but he also delivered us from death, which is the punishment God had established for transgressions (“The soul who sins … will die,” Ezek. 18:4b). Therefore, for us to be redeemed means life.
The final words I bring into this study of “redemption” are gāʾal, which means “to redeem,” and the related noun, gōʾēl, which means “kinsman-redeemer.” This latter term requires explanation.
It was a principle of Jewish law that property should remain within a family as much as possible. Therefore, if a Jewish person lost his or her share of the land through debt or by some other means, a solemn obligation evolved on a near relative (if there was one) to buy the property back again. This person, because of close relationship to the one who had lost the property, was a “kinsman,” and if willing and able to purchase the property and restore it to the family, he became a “kinsman-redeemer.” In some cases, where there was no male heir to inherit the property, the duty of the kinsman extended to marrying the widow in order to raise up heirs.
A kinsman-redeemer had to fulfill three qualifications:
- He had to be a close relative (a stranger would not do),
- He had to be willing to take on this responsibility (nobody could be compelled to do this work), and
- He had to be able to pay the ransom price (he had to have sufficient means at his disposal).
A Romance of Redemption
Those three conditions apply to and were fulfilled in the case of Jesus Christ. But to make them vivid, let me develop them in the context of an Old Testament story, the only story in the Bible in which we see a kinsman-redeemer in action. It is the story of Ruth and her “redeemer,” Boaz.
In the days of the Judges there was a famine in Israel, and a man from Bethlehem, whose name was Elimelech, left Judah with his wife, Naomi and two sons to live in Moab. Not long after this, Elimelech died, and shortly after that the sons married Moabite women. One was Orpah, and the other was Ruth. About ten years later the sons also died, and Naomi and the two daughters-in-law were left. Apparently the three were quite poor, so when Naomi heard that the famine in Judah had passed and that there was food there, she decided to go back to her homeland and live again in Bethlehem. Orpah took her mother-in-law’s advice and went back to her family, but Ruth insisted on staying with Naomi. Her entreaty (Ruth 1:16–17), which Naomi heeded, is one of the most beautiful passages in the Bible. Ruth said:
“Don’t urge me to leave you or to turn back from you. Where you go I will go, and where you stay I will stay. Your people will be my people and your God my God. Where you die I will die, and there I will be buried. May the Lord deal with me, be it ever so severely, if anything but death separates you and me.”
Back in Bethlehem, Naomi and Ruth were still quite poor, in spite of the fact that Naomi seems to have owned a piece of land (cf. 4:3), and the only way they could survive was by Ruth’s going into the fields at harvest time to “glean” behind the reapers. Gleaning means that she was allowed to follow the workmen and pick up any small bits of grain they discarded. The law of Israel established this right for poor persons.
Ruth went to a field belonging to an affluent man named Boaz who, as it turned out, was a close relative of Naomi, a kinsman of her deceased husband Elimelech. Boaz was kind to Ruth, in spite of the fact that she was a foreigner. He encouraged her to remain in his fields and instructed the workmen to protect her and be generous to her, allowing a good supply of the grain to fall behind.
Can we say that Boaz fell in love with Ruth the Moabitess? Yes, we can, even though these are not the words in which the ancients recounted such events. (Strikingly, the word love does not occur in the entire Book of Ruth, though it is a love story.)
Naomi seems to have recognized what was happening as well as realizing that God was arranging circumstances so that Boaz could perform the office of a kinsman-redeemer for herself, in regard to her inheritance, and for Ruth, in regard to raising up an heir. So she advised Ruth how to make her claim known to Boaz. When she did, Boaz was delighted, for it meant that Ruth was interested in him also and had not, as he said, “run after the younger men, whether rich or poor” (Ruth 3:10). Unfortunately, there was a kinsman closer to Naomi and Ruth than himself. Boaz promised to raise the matter with this kinsman and to perform the office of kinsman-redeemer if the other was unable or unwilling.
As it turned out, the other relative was interested in the land but was unable to fulfill the obligation to Ruth. So Boaz willingly bought the land and married Ruth. The story ends by relating that they had a son named Obed, who became the father of Jesse, who was the father of King David.
What a beautiful story! What a beautiful redemption for Ruth! J. Vernon McGee comments:
From the very beginning there was a marvelous development in the status of Ruth. First, she was found in the land of Moab, a stranger from the covenants of promise, without hope and without God in the world. Next she was brought by providence into the field of Boaz, under the wings of the God of Israel. Then she was sent to the threshing floor of Boaz; and there she was seen asserting her claim for a kinsman-redeemer. Finally, in this last chapter of the Book of Ruth, she is seen as a bride for the heart of Boaz and as a mother in his home. What splendid progress! What scriptural evolution! From a very lowly beginning she was lifted to the very pinnacle of blessing. All this was made possible by a goel who loved her.
In redeeming us, Jesus fulfilled a similar set of qualifications: (1) He became our kinsman by the incarnation, being born in this very town of Bethlehem; (2) he was willing to be our Redeemer, because of his great love for us; and (3) he was able to redeem us, because he alone could provide an adequate redemption price by dying. We rightly sing:
There was no other good enough
To pay the price of sin;
He only could unlock the gate
Of heaven, and let us in.
The redemption of Ruth may not have cost Boaz a great deal, at the most only money, but our redemption cost Jesus Christ his life.
The Death of Great Words
At the beginning of this study I referred to the address of the gifted theologian B. B. Warfield, given to the incoming class of students at Princeton Seminary in 1915. I return to it now because of something else it contains. Warfield had spoken of “Redeemer” and “redemption” as being among the most precious words in the Christian vocabulary. But he confessed, as he came to the end of his address, that this seemed to be changing. The precise biblical meanings of these words was being lost, and with them something precious about Christianity. Warfield said:
What we are doing today as we look out upon our current religious modes of speech, is assisting at the deathbed of a word. It is sad to witness the death of any worthy thing—even of a worthy word. And worthy words do die, like any other worthy thing—if we do not take care of them.… I hope you will determine that, God helping you, you will not let them die thus, if any care on your part can preserve them in life and vigor.
But the dying of the words is not the saddest thing which we see here. The saddest thing is the dying out of the hearts of men of the things for which the words stand.… The real thing for you to settle in your minds, therefore, is whether Christ is truly a Redeemer to you, and whether you find an actual redemption in him.… Do you realize that Christ is your Ransomer and has actually shed his blood for you as your ransom? Do you realize that your salvation has been bought, bought at a tremendous price, at the price of nothing less precious than blood, and that the blood of Christ, the Holy One of God? Or, go a step further: do you realize that this Christ who has thus shed his blood for you is himself your God?
We have fallen a great deal further away from these great concepts since Warfield’s time, and we are spiritually impoverished as a result. Yet the issue is the same. The questions are unchanged. Is Jesus truly your Redeemer? Are you trusting in him? Your answer to those questions will determine your entire life and destiny.
 Tozer, A. W., & Eggert, R. (2015). Tozer on the almighty god: a 365-day devotional. Chicago, IL: Moody Publishers.
 MacArthur, J. F., Jr. (1991). Romans (pp. 208–209). Chicago: Moody Press.
 Harrison, E. F., & Hagner, D. A. (2008). Romans. In T. Longman III &. Garland, David E. (Ed.), The Expositor’s Bible Commentary: Romans–Galatians (Revised Edition) (Vol. 11, pp. 70–71). Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.
 MacDonald, W. (1995). Believer’s Bible Commentary: Old and New Testaments. (A. Farstad, Ed.) (pp. 1688–1689). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.
 Boice, J. M. (1991–). Romans: Justification by Faith (Vol. 1, pp. 363–370). Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House.