12:23 he enlarges nations. This may have the negative sense of “disperse” or “scatter,” making the second line antithetical to the first. Sometimes God makes nations great and then destroys them, while other times he first scatters a nation and then gives it peace or leads it in an orderly way.
12:23 / The remaining verses of chapter 12 focus on the collision between the power of God and the great nations and leaders of the earth. If verses 16–21 speak of the power of God over leaders at a more local level, verses 23–25 declare his sovereignty over those great nations (goyim) that have pretensions to world domination and control. These claims fade before the realities of God’s sovereign power as creator. It is God who makes nations great and who enlarges them. He is also the one who destroys and disperses them.
 Crossway Bibles. (2008). The ESV Study Bible (p. 890). Wheaton, IL: Crossway Bibles.
 Wilson, G. H. (2012). Job. (W. W. Gasque, R. L. Hubbard Jr., & R. K. Johnston, Eds.) (p. 131). Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books.