From which we also eagerly wait for the Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ.
Anticipating Christ’s return is the greatest source of spiritual motivation, accountability, and security. It provides tremendous motivation in pursuing Christ because you will want to be ready when He comes. You will want to have been faithful in serving Him. You can find motivation in the hope of one day being rewarded by Christ and hearing, “Well done good and faithful servant…. Enter into the joy of your lord” (Matt. 25:23).
Christ’s return provides accountability because that’s when “each of us shall give account of himself to God” (Rom. 14:12).
And His return will make you secure, knowing that Jesus said, “This is the will of the Father who sent Me, that of all He has given Me I should lose nothing, but should raise it up at the last day” (John 6:39).
3:20 The apostle now contrasts the heavenly-minded attitude of the true believer.
At the time the Epistle was written, Philippi was a colony of Rome (Acts 16:12). The Philippians were citizens of Rome, enjoying its protection and privileges. But they were also citizens of their local government. Against this backdrop, the apostle reminds the believers that their citizenship is in heaven. Moffat translates it: “But we are a colony of heaven.”
This does not mean that Christians are not also citizens of earthly countries. Other Scriptures clearly teach that we are to be subject to governments because they are ordained by God (Rom. 13:1–7). Indeed, believers should be obedient to the government in all matters not expressly forbidden by the Lord. The Philippians owed allegiance to the local magistrates, and also to the Emperor in Rome. So believers have responsibilities to earthly governments, but their first loyalty is to the Lord in heaven.
Not only are we citizens of heaven, but we also eagerly wait for the Savior from heaven! Eagerly wait for is strong language (in the original) to express the earnest expectation of something believed to be imminent. It means literally to thrust forward the head and neck as in anxious expectation of hearing or seeing something.
3:21 When the Lord Jesus comes from heaven, He will change these bodies of ours. There is nothing vile or evil about the human body in itself. The evil lies in the wrong uses to which it is put.
But it is a lowly body, a body of humiliation. It is subject to wrinkles, scars, age, suffering, sickness, and death. It limits and cramps us!
The Lord will transform it into a body of glory. The full extent of the meaning of this we do not know. It will no longer be subject to decay or death, to the limitations of time or of natural barriers. It will be a real body, yet perfectly suited to conditions in heaven. It will be like the resurrection body of the Lord Jesus.
This does not mean that we will all have the same physical appearance! Jesus was distinctly recognizable after His resurrection, and doubtless each individual will have his or her own individual physical identity in eternity.
Also, this passage does not teach that we shall be like the Lord Jesus as far as the attributes of God are concerned. We shall never have all-knowledge or all-power; neither shall we be in all places at one and same time.
But we shall be morally like the Lord Jesus. We shall be forever free from sin. This passage does not give us enough to satisfy our curiosity, but it is enough to inspire comfort and stimulate hope.
According to the working by which He is able even to subdue all things to Himself. The transformation of our bodies will be accomplished by the same divine power which the Lord will later use to subdue all things to Himself. He is “able to save” (Heb. 7:25). He is “able to aid” (Heb. 2:18). He is “able to keep” (Jude 24). Now in this verse we learn that He is able to subdue. “This is … our God forever and ever: He will be our guide even to death” (Ps. 48:14).
20, 21. Such conduct would certainly be ill-fitting for the citizens of the kingdom of heaven, Paul implies, as he continues, For our164 homeland is in heaven. Do citizens of Philippi think of Rome as their native land to which they belong, in whose tribal records they are enrolled, whose dress they wear, whose language they speak, by whose laws they are governed, whose protection they enjoy, and whose emperor they worship as their Savior? In a sense far more sublime and real these Christians dwelling in Philippi must realize that their homeland or commonwealth has its fixed location in heaven. It was heaven that gave them birth, for they are born from above. Their names are inscribed on heaven’s register. Their lives are being governed from heaven and in accordance with heavenly standards. Their rights are secured in heaven. Their interests are being promoted there. To heaven their thoughts and prayers ascend and their hopes aspire. Many of their friends, members of the fellowship, are there even now, and they themselves, the citizens of the heavenly kingdom who are still on earth, will follow shortly. Yes, in heaven their inheritance awaits them. Their heavenly mansions are being prepared. See such passages as John 3:3; 14:1–4; Rom. 8:17; Eph. 2:6; Col. 3:1–3; Heb. 4:14–16; 6:19, 20; 7:25; 12:22–24; 1 Peter 1:4, 5; Rev. 7:9–17. Yes, Jerusalem that is above is their mother (Gal. 4:26). They are fellow-citizens with the saints and of the household of God (Eph. 2:19). On this earth they are strangers, sojourners, and pilgrims (Heb. 11:13; 1 Peter 2:11). “They desire a better country, that is, a heavenly one. Therefore God is not ashamed to be called their God, for he has prepared for them a city” (Heb. 11:16). Above all, in heaven dwells their Head, and they are the Body; so infinitely close is their relation to heaven! And this Head is, indeed, Savior. In fact, he is the only, the real Savior, who is coming again to deliver them from all their enemies and to draw them as closely as possible to his own bosom. Hence, Paul continues, from which we also are eagerly awaiting as Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ.
The hope of Christ’s Return has sanctifying power: “every one who has this hope set on him purifies himself even as he is pure” (1 John 3:3). If a person makes a god of his belly and sets his mind on earthly things, how can he ever expect to be welcomed by the spotlessly holy and infinitely glorious Christ at his brilliant advent? This surely is the reason—at least one of the chief reasons—why the coming of Christ is here mentioned.
Believers are eagerly awaiting their Lord. Theirs is not the attitude of the men of Laodicea, that of lukewarmness (Rev. 3:14–22); nor the attitude of some people in Thessalonica, that of nervousness (2 Thess. 2:1, 2); but rather the attitude of the Smyrniots, that of faithfulness. The latter, while looking forward to the crown of life, remained faithful unto death (Rev. 2:8–11). The citizens of the kingdom of heaven, looking away from all sinful pleasures, eagerly yearn to welcome their Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ. They await his manifestation in glory (1 Cor. 1:7; Col. 3:4). It is a waiting in faith (Gal. 5:5), with patient endurance (Rom. 8:25), and unto salvation (Heb. 9:28). In a sense, the entire creation is eagerly looking forward for this great event, when from its present corruption and futility it shall be delivered, being transferred into the sphere of the glorious liberty of the children of God (Rom. 8:21).
Note that believers are yearning for the Lord Jesus Christ (see on Phil. 2:10) in his capacity as Savior. Even as Judge he will still be their Savior. The word Savior is also applied to Christ in Eph. 5:23; 2 Tim. 1:10; Titus 1:4; 2:13; 3:6. In fact, in Titus 2:13 Jesus is called “our great God and Savior.” Not this or that heathen deity nor the Roman emperor but the Lord Jesus Christ is the real Savior whom believers are eagerly expecting. As their Savior he will deliver them from the final results of sin, will completely vindicate them and their cause, and will bestow upon them the glorious inheritance of the saints in the light, in a marvelously rejuvenated universe.
Though the glories of the intermediate state, that is, the happiness that will be the believer’s portion during the interval between death and bodily resurrection, are not absent from the mind of the apostle (see Phil. 1:21, 23), nevertheless, he does not fall into the error into which we are so prone to become ensnared, namely, that of emphasizing the intermediate state at the expense of the Lord’s advent! Will not the latter glory—in which all the saints of all the ages will take part, and in which Christ will be vindicated before all the world—be even greater than the former?
Paul continues, who will refashion our lowly body so that it will have a form like his own glorious body. By many Greek pagans the body was viewed as a prison from which at death the soul will be delivered. The body was intrinsically “vile.” To Paul, however, that body was a temple, even the sanctuary of the Holy Spirit (1 Cor. 6:19). To be sure, right now, as a result of the entrance of sin, it is “the body of our humiliation” (cf. cognate verb in Phil. 2:8, “he humbled himself”). As such it is exposed to sin’s curse in the form of weakness, suffering, sickness, ugliness, futility, death, but at his coming the Savior—who is a complete Savior—will refashion it in such a manner that this new outward fashion or appearance will truly reflect the new and lasting inner form, for it will have a form like the glorious body of the ascended Lord. We shall be “conformed to the image of his (the Father’s) Son” (Rom. 8:29). We shall “bear the image of the heavenly” (1 Cor. 15:49). “When he will be manifested, we shall be like him, for we shall see him even as he is” (1 John 3:2). The nature of this great change is detailed in 1 Cor. 15:42–44, 50–58.
The question occurs, however, “But how will this be possible?” What about those martyrs who were devoured by lions? What about those who were burned alive? Yes, what about millions of others, particles of whose dead and decaying bodies, through various stages of disintegration, finally enter into other living bodies? An answer that would be completely “satisfying” to the mind of man—the mind darkened by sin!—is not available. One outstanding fact remains, however. That fact is the almighty power of One who could not be held even by death. Hence, the apostle concludes this exalted paragraph by saying (and who will do this) by the exertion—or exercise—of that power which enables him to subject even all things to himself. Marvelous is the energy of Christ’s dynamite, that is, of his power. This energy is his power in action, the exercise of his power. Surely, if that energy enables him to do the greater, how would it not enable him to do the lesser? If he can subject even all things, the totality of all the powers of the universe, unto himself (cf. Ps. 8:6; 1 Cor. 15:27; Heb. 2:5–8), will he not be able to refashion our lowly body so that it will have a form like his own glorious body?
Thus, Paul, the Indefatigable Idealist, ends this great chapter. He has reached the highest rung of the ladder. From conversion, with its repudiation of all human merits (verse 7), justification and sanctification, with the goal of perfection always in view (the main parts of verses 8–19), he has reached the great Consummation, when soul and body, the entire person, together with all the saints, will glorify God in Christ in the new heaven and earth, forever and forever. All this, through God’s sovereign grace and power, and to his everlasting glory!
Focusing on Expectations
For our citizenship is in heaven, from which also we eagerly wait for a Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ; who will transform the body of our humble state into conformity with the body of His glory, by the exertion of the power that He has even to subject all things to Himself. (3:20–21)
The underlying motivation for pursuing Christlikeness is the hope of the return of Jesus Christ. Since Christ is in heaven, those who love Him must be preoccupied with heaven, longing for Christ to return and take them to be with Him (1 Thess. 4:17).
Paul had little interest in the comforts and pleasures of this world, as the following passages indicate:
We are afflicted in every way, but not crushed; perplexed, but not despairing; persecuted, but not forsaken; struck down, but not destroyed; always carrying about in the body the dying of Jesus, so that the life of Jesus also may be manifested in our body. (2 Cor. 4:8–10)
In everything commending ourselves as servants of God, in much endurance, in afflictions, in hardships, in distresses, in beatings, in imprisonments, in tumults, in labors, in sleeplessness, in hunger, in purity, in knowledge, in patience, in kindness, in the Holy Spirit, in genuine love, in the word of truth, in the power of God; by the weapons of righteousness for the right hand and the left, by glory and dishonor, by evil report and good report; regarded as deceivers and yet true; as unknown yet well-known, as dying yet behold, we live; as punished yet not put to death, as sorrowful yet always rejoicing, as poor yet making many rich, as having nothing yet possessing all things. (2 Cor. 6:4–10)
Are they servants of Christ?—I speak as if insane—I more so; in far more labors, in far more imprisonments, beaten times without number, often in danger of death. Five times I received from the Jews thirty-nine lashes. Three times I was beaten with rods, once I was stoned, three times I was shipwrecked, a night and a day I have spent in the deep. I have been on frequent journeys, in dangers from rivers, dangers from robbers, dangers from my countrymen, dangers from the Gentiles, dangers in the city, dangers in the wilderness, dangers on the sea, dangers among false brethren; I have been in labor and hardship, through many sleepless nights, in hunger and thirst, often without food, in cold and exposure. Apart from such external things, there is the daily pressure on me of concern for all the churches. Who is weak without my being weak? Who is led into sin without my intense concern? (2 Cor. 11:23–29)
This view led him to the conviction that made him write, “I am hard-pressed from both directions, having the desire to depart and be with Christ, for that is very much better” (1:23).
It is consistent for believers to have a heavenly focus, because our citizenship is in heaven. Politeuma (citizenship) appears only here in the New Testament, though Paul used the related verb in 1:27. It refers to the place where one has official status, the commonwealth where one’s name is recorded on the register of citizens. Though believers live in this world, they are citizens of heaven. They are members of Christ’s kingdom, which is not of this world (John 18:36). Their names are recorded in heaven (Luke 10:20; cf. Phil. 4:3; Heb. 12:23; Rev. 13:8; 21:27); their Savior is there (Acts 1:11; 1 Thess. 4:16); their fellow saints are there (Heb. 12:23); their inheritance is there (1 Peter 1:4); their reward is there (Matt. 5:12); and their treasure is there (Matt. 6:20).
Though they do not yet live in heaven, believers live in the heavenly realm (Eph. 2:6); they experience to some degree the heavenly life here on earth. They have the life of God within them, are under the rule of heaven’s King, and live for heaven’s cause.
Paul’s reference to citizenship may have been especially meaningful to the Philippians, since Philippi was a Roman colony. The Philippians were Roman citizens, though obviously living outside of Rome, just as believers are citizens of heaven living on earth.
It is from heaven that we eagerly wait for a Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ. To the disciples who watched as Christ ascended into heaven the angels said, “Men of Galilee, why do you stand looking into the sky? This Jesus, who has been taken up from you into heaven, will come in just the same way as you have watched Him go into heaven” (Acts 1:11). In John 14:2–3 Jesus Himself promised, “In My Father’s house are many dwelling places; if it were not so, I would have told you; for I go to prepare a place for you. If I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again and receive you to Myself, that where I am, there you may be also.” Because of those promises, believers are to be “awaiting eagerly the revelation of our Lord Jesus Christ” (1 Cor. 1:7), and “to wait for His Son from heaven, whom He raised from the dead, that is Jesus, who rescues us from the wrath to come” (1 Thess. 1:10). Until He returns, believers “groan within [themselves], waiting eagerly for [their] adoption as sons, the redemption of [the] body” (Rom. 8:23).
The hope of Christ’s return provides believers with motivation, accountability, and security. In this promise there is positive motivation to be found faithful when He returns to reward believers; to be accountable to God for living lives that produce gold, silver, and precious stones instead of wood, hay, and straw (1 Cor. 3:12). There is a corresponding negative reality, as John wrote: “Watch yourselves, that you do not lose what we have accomplished, but that you may receive a full reward” (2 John 8). Finally, the promise of Christ’s return provides security, since Jesus promised, “This is the will of Him who sent Me, that of all that He has given Me I lose nothing, but raise it up on the last day. For this is the will of My Father, that everyone who beholds the Son and believes in Him will have eternal life, and I Myself will raise him up on the last day” (John 6:39–40).
Believers are not to wait for Christ’s return with attitudes of passive resignation or bored disinterest. Instead, they are to eagerly wait for a Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ. Believers are not waiting for an event but a Person. Apekdechomai (eagerly wait) is often used to speak of waiting for Christ’s second coming (e.g., Rom. 8:19, 23, 25; 1 Cor. 1:7; Gal. 5:5; Heb. 9:28). It describes not only eagerness, but also patience.
As noted above, Christ’s return marks the end of believers’ struggling pursuit of the elusive prize of holy perfection, for it is then that He will transform the body of our humble state into conformity with the body of His glory. It is then that the eagerly awaited redemption of the body will take place (Rom. 8:23). It is “when He appears [that] we will be like Him, because we will see Him just as He is” (1 John 3:2). Until then, the new creature (2 Cor. 5:17) is incarcerated in the unredeemed humanness (“the body of this death”; Rom. 7:24) from which it longs to be liberated.
For believers who die before Christ’s return, death means the temporary separation of the spirit from the body. The body goes into the grave, while the spirit goes immediately into the presence of God (1:21, 23; 2 Cor. 5:6, 8). Heaven is currently occupied by “the spirits of the righteous made perfect” (Heb. 12:23). Those believers who live from Pentecost to the Rapture will have their spirits joined to their resurrection bodies at the Rapture (1 Thess. 4:15–17). The Old Testament believers and those saved during the Tribulation will receive their resurrection bodies at Christ’s second coming (Dan. 12:2; Rev. 20:4).
Christ will totally transform the bodies of all believers, each group at its appointed time (cf. 1 Cor. 15:22–23), to make them fit for heaven. Believers’ bodies will have a new schematic; they will be refashioned and redesigned. Christ will change the present body of our humble state into conformity with the body of His glory. Like Christ’s resurrection body, believers’ resurrected bodies will be recognizable. They will be able to eat, talk, and walk, but will not have the physical restrictions of our present bodies. After His resurrection Christ appeared and disappeared at will, even entering a room whose doors were locked (John 20:19). Paul gives the most detailed description of believers’ resurrection bodies in 1 Corinthians 15:35–49:
But someone will say, “How are the dead raised? And with what kind of body do they come?” You fool! That which you sow does not come to life unless it dies; and that which you sow, you do not sow the body which is to be, but a bare grain, perhaps of wheat or of something else. But God gives it a body just as He wished, and to each of the seeds a body of its own. All flesh is not the same flesh, but there is one flesh of men, and another flesh of beasts, and another flesh of birds, and another of fish. There are also heavenly bodies and earthly bodies, but the glory of the heavenly is one, and the glory of the earthly is another. There is one glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon, and another glory of the stars; for star differs from star in glory. So also is the resurrection of the dead. It is sown a perishable body, it is raised an imperishable body; it is sown in dishonor, it is raised in glory; it is sown in weakness, it is raised in power; it is sown a natural body, it is raised a spiritual body. If there is a natural body, there is also a spiritual body. So also it is written, ‘The first man, Adam, became a living soul.’ The last Adam became a life-giving spirit. However, the spiritual is not first, but the natural; then the spiritual. The first man is from the earth, earthy; the second man is from heaven. As is the earthy, so also are those who are earthy; and as is the heavenly, so also are those who are heavenly. Just as we have borne the image of the earthy, we will also bear the image of the heavenly.
The combination of a redeemed spirit and a glorified body will enable all believers to perfectly manifest the glory of God. Sin, weakness, sorrow, disappointment, pain, suffering, doubt, fear, temptation, hate, and failure will give way to perfect joy (Matt. 25:21), pleasure (Ps. 16:11), knowledge (1 Cor. 13:12), comfort (Luke 16:25), and love (1 Cor. 13:13).
Salvation involves far more than mere deliverance from hell. God’s ultimate goal in redeeming believers is to transform their bodies into conformity with the body of His glory. They will “become conformed [summorphos; the same word translated conformity in v. 21] to the image of His Son” (Rom. 8:29; cf. 1 John 3:2). “Just as we have borne the image of the earthy, we will also bear the image of the heavenly” (1 Cor. 15:49).
Their transformed bodies will permit believers finally to be the perfect creation God intends for them to be for the joy of perfect fellowship with Him forever. Describing heaven, John wrote, “I heard a loud voice from the throne, saying, ‘Behold, the tabernacle of God is among men, and He will dwell among them, and they shall be His people, and God Himself will be among them’ ” (Rev. 21:3; cf. John 14:1–3; 1 Thess. 4:17). Those bodies will also allow believers to see God. In the Beatitudes Jesus said, “Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God” (Matt. 5:8), while John wrote that in heaven “there will no longer be any curse; and the throne of God and of the Lamb will be in it, and His bond-servants will serve Him; they will see His face, and His name will be on their foreheads” (Rev. 22:3–4). Believers’ resurrection bodies will also be perfectly suited for the eternal service they will render to God (cf. Rev. 7:15).
Lest any doubt Christ’s power to transform believers’ bodies, Paul notes that He will accomplish it by the exertion of the power that He has even to subject all things to Himself. Hupotassō (subject) means “to arrange in order of rank” or “to manage.” Christ will have the power to rule the millennial kingdom (Rev. 12:5, 19:15; cf. Isa. 9:6; 32:1; Zech. 14:9). By His power Christ will also transform the earth’s topography (Zech. 14:4–8) and the natural kingdom (Isa. 11:6–9). Paul’s point is that if Christ can subject the entire universe to His sovereign control (cf. 1 Cor. 15:24–27), He has the power to transform believers’ bodies into His image.
As they run the spiritual race (Heb. 12:1), believers must look to godly examples for inspiration and instruction. They must also look out for those enemies of the truth who would lead them astray. Finally, they must focus on the glorious hope that is theirs at the return of Christ—the transformation of their bodies into conformity with His. Then, regenerated fully in soul and body, they will be suited to eternal, holy glory and joy.
20 The recurrence of rare words in 3:20; 4:1; and 4:3 (appearing first in 1:27) marks 1:27–4:3 as a unit. The verbs in 1:27, politeuomai (“conduct yourselves [as citizens],” GK 4488; 1:27), stēkō (“stand firm,” GK 5112), and synathleō (“contending as one,” GK 5254), reappear in the same order: politeuma (nominal form, “citizenship,” GK 4487; 3:20), stēkō (“stand firm”; 4:1), and synathleō (“contended at my side”; 4:3). Paul also weaves the vocabulary from 2:6–11 into these verses and draws on that passage’s elevated style (Lincoln, 88–89), which suggests that he reaches the climax of his argument in this entire section (1:27–4:3).
Since we “eagerly await a Savior from [heaven]” (cf. 1 Th 1:10; 4:16; 5:23), that must be where the Christian’s Lord is now, and the Lord’s presence there is the reason why the Christian’s commonwealth is in heaven. By using the metaphor of a civic body, Paul reminds the Philippians that they are an outpost on earth of God’s kingdom in heaven. The metaphor evokes at least four points of comparison:
(1) Since Philippi was an outpost of Caesar’s empire, he leaves them to draw the contrasts. Caesar is not the savior, as imperial propaganda would want people to believe, but Jesus is. Paul may deliberately allude to popular names of Nero—“Lord” and “Savior”—to make the point that Caesar is not Lord.
(2) The metaphor evokes the rights and privileges of citizenship. Philippian Christians who may have been granted the honor of Roman citizenship will need to recognize that their heavenly citizenship is infinitely greater and to evaluate their status in the same way that Paul evaluated his status as a Jew. The least in the kingdom of heaven is greater than any in the kingdom of Rome. If they are dual citizens, their allegiance to the Lord of heaven is to outweigh all other commitments. If they are not legal citizens of any earthly city, then they should know that they are full citizens of a heavenly commonwealth, with all its perquisite rights and privileges. In this body of citizens, all members share full and equal rights.
(3) In Greek thought, a citizen should submerge his own interests and profit to that of the city. Paul’s metaphor reminds Christians that as citizens of heaven they should subordinate their self-interest to the welfare of the community to the point of self-sacrifice.
(4) Roman colonies were set up as “miniatures” of Rome (Gellius, Attic Nights 16.13.9) to foster the majesty of Roman culture, religion, and values. The Christian commonwealth has a different constitution and different laws, and Christians are to exemplify the values of the heavenly realm. Christ’s resurrection establishes a new city (polis) and an alternative political jurisdiction that challenges the values and the methods of the empire. The empire tyrannizes, enslaves, and crucifies its subjects. Christians are not to imitate the crucifiers but the crucified one. They are to accept suffering rather than to inflict it. If one is conformed to the kings of this world, one is conformed to a way of death; if one is conformed to Christ, one is conformed to a way that brings life.
In a world of conflicting powers, Christians await the Savior’s return to rescue them from death-dealing powers. They are not to place their trust in Caesar to protect them from enemy hordes and death through his military power but in God’s power to raise the dead and destroy death. Christ was obedient to death but now reigns with all power (2:6–11) and will come to effect the rescue and vindication of those who belong to him, as God effected the same for him (Lincoln, 107). Christians must wait patiently and faithfully for his return.
21 Christians await the resurrection, described here in terms of the transformation of, literally, “the body of humiliation” (to sōma tēs tapeinōseōs, a Hebraic genitive). Paul is not denigrating bodily existence (“our vile body,” KJV). His language derives from the reality that our perishable bodies succumb to the humiliation of death by which we return to dust (1 Co 15:35–58). He also assumes that this earthly dress is unfit for heavenly habitation. Our earthly physicality requires a divinely wrought transformation (metaschēmatizō, “change the outward form of,” GK 3571; NIV, “transform”) to make it fit for heavenly existence. When Christ subjects all things to himself (including the emperors of this world, 1 Co 15:24), God will then claim the final victory over death.
 MacArthur, J. (2001). Truth for today : a daily touch of God’s grace (p. 166). Nashville, Tenn.: J. Countryman.
 MacDonald, W. (1995). Believer’s Bible Commentary: Old and New Testaments. (A. Farstad, Ed.) (pp. 1976–1977). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.
 Hendriksen, W., & Kistemaker, S. J. (1953–2001). Exposition of Philippians (Vol. 5, pp. 182–185). Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.
 MacArthur, J. F., Jr. (2001). Philippians (pp. 259–263). Chicago: Moody Press.
 Garland, D. E. (2006). Philippians. In T. Longman III (Ed.), The Expositor’s Bible Commentary: Ephesians–Philemon (Revised Edition) (Vol. 12, pp. 248–249). Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.