54:10 mountains … hills … My lovingkindness … My covenant. In the Millennium (48:6, 7; 51:6, 16) topography will change (see Eze 38:20; Mic 1:4; Zec 14:4, 10), but not God’s pledge of well-being for Israel as a result of the New Covenant (55:3; 59:21; 61:8).
54:10 God’s love for his people is not just a little greater than his wrath; it is massively greater and eternally unchanging. my covenant of peace. Cf. this term in Ezek. 34:25–31, describing a renewed covenant with God after the exile. When the language of these prophecies is compared to the accounts of the returnees (in Ezra-Nehemiah), it becomes clear that the physical return was only the first installment.
54:10 The new covenant results in permanent peace with God (Rom. 5:1) and is secure forever (Heb. 9:12).
54:10my faithfulness shall not depart Alludes to the ultimate fulfillment of the salvation accomplished by the Messiah (see 16:5; 55:3). The Hebrew word chesed (“love; kindness”) often describes Yahweh’s attitude of covenant love or loyalty toward Israel. The Hebrew word encompasses the concepts of loyalty, faithfulness, benevolence, and kindness.
my covenant of peace The renewed covenant with Israel is unlike the first covenant; it will be eternal and permanent.
Jeremiah describes God establishing an entirely new covenant (Jer 31:31–33), and Ezekiel uses the same term—a covenant of peace—to describe the future peace of the Messiah’s reign (Ezek 34:25–31). The intertwining of immediate and future salvation oracles led to an expectation among the exiles that idealized the conditions of their restoration. Isaiah addresses their disillusionment in Isa 56–66. The return of the exiles was only one stage in the fulfillment of God’s redemptive plan.
54:10 mountains … hills. In our experience the mountains and hills seem permanent and unchanging, but the commitment of God to His people will remain when they are gone (51:6; Ps. 46:2, 3; Matt. 24:35; Heb. 1:10–12).
 MacArthur, J. F., Jr. (2006). The MacArthur study Bible: New American Standard Bible. (Is 54:10). Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers.
 Sproul, R. C. (Ed.). (2005). The Reformation Study Bible: English Standard Version (p. 1030). Orlando, FL; Lake Mary, FL: Ligonier Ministries.