55 “Come, everyone who thirsts,
come to the waters;
and he who has no money,
come, buy and eat!
Come, buy wine and milk
without money and without price.
2 Why do you spend your money for that which is not bread,
and your labor for that which does not satisfy?
Listen diligently to me, and eat what is good,
and delight yourselves in rich food.
3 Incline your ear, and come to me;
hear, that your soul may live;
and I will make with you an everlasting covenant,
my steadfast, sure love for David.
4 Behold, I made him a witness to the peoples,
a leader and commander for the peoples.
5 Behold, you shall call a nation that you do not know,
and a nation that did not know you shall run to you,
because of the LORD your God, and of the Holy One of Israel,
for he has glorified you.
The Holy Bible: English Standard Version. (2016). (Is 55:1–5). Wheaton, IL: Crossway Bibles.
1. Ho, all that are thirsty. Here the Prophet describes in lofty terms of commendation the goodness of God, which was to be poured down more copiously and abundantly than before under the reign of Christ, “in whose hand are hid all the treasures” (Col. 2:3) of the grace of God; for in him God fully explains his mind to us; so that the saying of John is actually fulfilled, “We have all drawn from his fulness, and have received grace for grace.” (John 1:16.) The fathers were, indeed, partakers of that divine goodness and spiritual kindness which is here mentioned. “How great,” says David, “is thy goodness, which hath been laid up for them that fear thee!” (Ps. 31:19.) But he hath poured it out far more liberally and abundantly in Christ. Thus, it is a remarkable commendation of the grace of God, which is exhibited to us in the kingdom of Christ; for the Prophet does not instruct us what has been done once, but also what is done every day, while the Lord invites us by his doctrine to the enjoyment of all blessings.
Come to the waters. Some view the word “waters” as referring to the doctrine of the Gospel, and others to the Holy Spirit; but neither of these expositions, in my opinion, is correct. They who think that it denotes the doctrine of the Gospel, and who contrast it with the law, (of which the Jewish writers think that the Prophet speaks in this passage,) include only one part of what the Prophet meant. They who expound it as denoting the Holy Spirit have somewhat more plausibility, and quote that passage of John’s Gospel, “If thou knewest the gift of God, and who it is that saith to thee, Give me to drink, thou wouldest have asked of him, and he would have given thee living water.” (John 4:10.) And a little after, Christ appears to expound this passage when he says, “Every one that drinketh of this water shall thirst again; but whosoever shall drink of the water which I shall give to him shall never thirst; but the water which I shall give to him shall become in him a fountain of water springing up to everlasting life.” (John 4:13, 14.)
But I have no doubt that under these words, “waters, milk, wine, bread,” Isaiah includes all that is necessary for spiritual life; for the metaphors are borrowed from those kinds of food which are in daily use amongst us. As we are nourished by “bread, wine, milk, and water,” so in like manner let us know that our souls are fed and supported by the doctrine of the Gospel, the Holy Spirit, and other gifts of Christ.
The Prophet exclaims, as with a voice above the usual pitch, Ho! for so great is the sluggishness of men that it is very difficult to arouse them. They do not feel their wants, though they are hungry; nor do they desire food, which they greatly need; and therefore that indifference must be shaken off by loud and incessant cries. So much the more base and shameful is the indolence of those who are deaf to this exhortation, and who, even when they are so sharply urged forward, still indulge in their slothfulness. Besides, the invitation is general; for there is no man who is not in want of those “waters,” and to whom Christ is not necessary; and therefore he invites all indiscriminately, without any respect of persons. But men are so miserable that, although they know that they are in need of Christ, they contrive methods by which they may be deprived of this benefit, and rather believe the devil, who offers various obstructions, than this kind invitation.
We must therefore inquire what is the true preparation for receiving this grace. The Prophet describes it by the word “thirsty.” Those who are puffed up with vain confidence and are satiated, or who, intoxicated by earthly appetites, do not feel thirst of soul, will not receive Christ; because they have no relish for spiritual grace. They resemble those persons who are in want of nourishment, but who, because they are filled and swollen with wind, loathe food, or who, being carried away by their own vain imaginations, feed on their own stupidity, as if they were in want of nothing. The consequence is, that they who are puffed up with pride or a false opinion of their own righteousness, or whom the allurements of the flesh have seized with lethargy, despise or reject the grace of God. It is therefore necessary that we have “thirst,” that is, an ardent desire, in order that it may be possible for us to receive so great blessings.
Buy without money. He does not mean that there are any persons who have money in abundance, but the words ought to be explained thus. “Although they are poor, although they are sunk in the deepest poverty, yet the way is open for them to come to Christ, through whom these blessings are freely bestowed.” “But how is it possible,” it will be said, “to buy without a price?” I reply, “buying” denotes figuratively the method by which we procure anything; and שבר (shābăr) is here put for “procure,” and “price” for labour or industry, or any other method by which men obtain anything. He shews that we are poor and utterly destitute, and that we have nothing by which we can become entitled to God’s favour; but that he kindly invites us, in order that he may freely bestow everything without any recompense.
1–5 Many commentators hear the voice of the Near Eastern water vendor in vv. 1–2, while others discern the accents of personified wisdom (Pr 9:1–6). Either is appropriate, for Isaiah is a master of illustrations from nature and contemporary culture. Moreover, as Whedbee has shown, at least for the chapters acknowledged to be by Isaiah of Jerusalem, he has definite contact with the Israelite wisdom tradition. We may, in fact, discern overtones of both. The water carrier is also a wise counselor.
Young (in loc.) has pointed out that the introductory word hôy, which lies behind the first instance of the English “Come” in v. 1 (“ho” in the KJV), “is mainly an attention-getting device, but it expresses a slight tone of pity.” Young goes on to say, “The prophet is an evangelist with a concern for the souls of men and a realization of their desperate condition without the blessings that the servant has obtained.”
The water vendor is, of course, part of the normal commercial scene in the Near East; but God through the prophet offers the people in Babylon not only water but also more costly drinks and also invites them to a banquet (Lk 14:15–24). Verse 2, with its mildly chiding tone, probably alludes to the people’s preoccupation with settling down in Babylon. As Thexton (in loc.) puts it: “They had been in Babylon for many years—some for the whole of their life. They had grown roots, acquired property and commercial interests, were prosperous and secure. The prophet does not plead or argue, but throws into the quiet pool of their complacency a disturbing pebble, as he asks: ‘Does all this really satisfy you? Is this what you are for?’ ” He speaks with urgency, “Listen, listen to me” (v. 2; see Overview of 51:1–52:12).
A substantial group of modern scholars (e.g., Eissfeldt, Westermann, Whybray) consider that in vv. 3–5 God promises his people that he will take the Davidic covenant (1 Sa 7:8–16) away from the royal line and give it to the people as a whole, thus perhaps putting it on a par with the Abrahamic and Mosaic covenants. But Eaton, 87–88, points out: “If the author had intended to make a fundamental change in the Davidic doctrine … he would surely have needed to be more explicit.… The nation is to be blessed within the radius of the Davidic covenant, but the destiny of the royal house remains.… It would be a poor sort of eternity that the covenant would have, if its heart were taken out!”
The faithfulness of God to the Davidic covenant is extolled in much of Psalm 89. It is true that the author expresses puzzlement at the ills befalling David’s house in his day (see esp. Ps 89:49), but this very passage in Isaiah, interpreted in terms of Jesus of Nazareth, is God’s answer to his concern, for this passage, which constitutes an important link with the promises of a Davidic Messiah given earlier in the book, is quoted by Paul in Acts 13:34 with reference to the resurrection of Christ, through whose risen kingship the promises of this passage receive their eternal and therefore their final fulfillment.
During David’s reign, Israel’s kingdom reached its greatest extent. David, as a faithful worshiper of the Lord, was therefore a witness to God’s truth to all the people in his empire, as well as being their leader. He therefore anticipated in himself the prophetic and kingly functions of the Messiah. In God’s future for his people, as here depicted, the empire will be wider still (cf. 9:7). The far parts of the earth will come up to Zion (cf. 2:1–5; 60:1–14) because she will attract them by the beauty her God has given to her (cf. 54:11–12). This means then that while ch. 54 depicts blessing for Zion, ch. 55 sees this blessing as going far beyond it and so reminds us of the universal mission of Christ, which took his messengers out from Jerusalem to a needy world.
A call to come (55:1–3)
Initially, this sounds like the invitation to a feast. Water, wine, milk, bread and other food are all on offer. If that isn’t enough, it is entirely free (the price was paid by the Servant in ch. 53) and satisfaction is guaranteed. It is only when we get to verse 3 that it becomes clear that this is a feast designed to bring life to the soul. The promise attached is of ‘an everlasting covenant’ like the one the Lord made with David (2 Sam. 7). In his own way, David had been a servant of the Lord.
A call to behold (55:4–5)
This call is to behold David and, by implication, his greater Son. Just as David was glorified for the benefit of the surrounding nations, so too will his greater Son be ‘lifted up’ (52:13) for the benefit of the Gentiles and the establishment of an everlasting kingdom.
55:1–5 / The community is longing for nourishment, for upbuilding, for the restoration of morale, for a conviction that it has a future. The prophet knows that the message of chapters 40–55 is the one that will meet its needs, and here he makes one last appeal to it to come for that nourishment. It is not clear whether verse 2 refers to literal expenditure on other religious resources such as the making of images, or whether its language is simply part of the detail of the picture that is not to be pressed.
Verses 3b–5 sum up the content of the message. Once God had made a covenant with David, that famous servant of Yahweh. Other prophets promised that this commitment to David would find expression in the re-establishment of the Davidic monarchy, and periodically something like this happened. It happened in the period after the Maccabean crisis in the second century b.c., and Christians saw an expression of this fulfillment in the fact that the world’s deliverer came from David’s line. The Poet takes a different tack. As Psalm 89 points out, Yahweh had not kept the promises to David. But these promises will be fulfilled not in another individual David, but in the life of the Davidic people. That, after all, was God’s intention from the beginning. Having kings was God’s second-best according to 1 Samuel 8–12, and God has now been proved right as monarchy has been discredited. It is another way of expressing the promise that the people will fulfill the role of Yahweh’s servant.
Come (Isa. 55:1–5). The invitation is extended to “everyone” and not just to the Jews. Anyone who is thirsting for that which really satisfies (John 4:10–14) is welcome to come. As in Isaiah 25:6, the prophet pictures God’s blessings in terms of a great feast, where God is the host.
In the East, water is a precious ingredient; and an abundance of water is a special blessing (41:17; 44:3). Wine, milk, and bread were staples of their diet. The people were living on substitutes that did not nourish them. They needed “the real thing,” which only the Lord could give. In Scripture, both water and wine are pictures of the Holy Spirit (John 7:37–39; Eph. 5:18). Jesus is the “bread of life” (John 6:32–35), and His living Word is like milk (1 Peter 2:2). Our Lord probably had Isaiah 55:2 in mind when He said, “Do not labor for the food which perishes, but for the food which endures to everlasting life” (John 6:27, NKJV).
People have to work hard to dig wells, care for flocks and herds, plant seed, and tend to the vineyards. But the Lord offered to them free everything they were laboring for. If they listen to His Word, they will be inclined to come; for God draws sinners to Himself through the Word (John 5:24). Note the emphasis on hearing in Isaiah 55:2–3.
“The sure mercies of David” involve God’s covenant with David (2 Sam. 7) in which He promised that a Descendant would reign on David’s throne forever. This, of course, is Jesus Christ (Luke 1:30–33); and the proof that He is God’s King is seen in His resurrection from the dead (Acts 13:34–39). Jesus Christ is God’s covenant to the Gentiles (“peoples”), and His promises will stand as long as His Son lives, which is forever.
Isaiah 55:5 indicates that God will use Israel to call the Gentiles to salvation, which was certainly true in the early days of the church (Acts 10:1ff; 11:19ff; 13:1ff) and will be true during the kingdom (Isa. 2:2–4; 45:14; Zech. 8:22). Jerusalem will be the center for worship in the world, and God will be glorified as the nations meet together with Israel to honor the Lord.
55:1–5. At the outset, the Lord invites Israel to come and enjoy the nourishing presence of God and His blessing, and thereby experience spiritual satisfaction. This section highlights not only the amazing provisions of God, but also that these provisions are free. In contrast to those who charge the thirsty for drink, God offers water and wine at no charge (v. 1). The rhetorical questions (v. 2) continue the previous thought, emphasizing the futility of spending hard-earned money on food that will not nourish. God calls His people to eat what is good and rich without charge. The figurative nature of the previous verses is evident in what follows (v. 3). Though physical sustenance will surely be provided, Israel will be sustained through their obedience to the Lord and His provision of the everlasting covenant, a reference to the new covenant (see Jr 31:31–34), guaranteeing God’s ongoing nourishment. Next, the Lord explains how to respond to the invitation, namely by turning to the Servant, the Davidic Messiah (v. 4). In this verse, the Lord shifts from addressing Israel (you, your, v. 3) to speaking of the Servant-Messiah (him). He is described as a witness, a leader, and a commander. That these are to be understood as messianic is evident in that: (1) this language is too exalted for any other ruler and (2) the word leader (nagid) is specifically used of the Messiah (Dn 9:25). That the antecedent to these titles is David (v. 3) does not negate the messianic interpretation in that the prophets frequently call the Messiah “David” (cf. Jr 30:9; Ezk 36:23–24, 37:24–25; Hs 3:4–5) by metonymy because He and David are so closely connected and He is the fulfillment of the Davidic covenant (called here the faithful mercies shown to David, 55:3; cf. 2Sm 7:12–16). The word witness refers to one who speaks truthfully. Leader means “ruler” and is used as a synonym for “king” (see 1Sm 9:16; 10:1; 1Kg 1:35). Commander refers to a leader with authority to issue commands, a royal lawgiver. The Lord’s Servant-Messiah is addressed directly (55:5) where God tells Him that He will have command over a nation that He does not know because the Lord has glorified Him. When the Servant-Messiah takes His throne, He will not only rule Israel but the Gentile nations as well.
55:1–5 Poverty, abundance, mission. 1–3 The fourfold come is as wide as human need (note the stress on unsatisfied longing in vs 1–2, as in e.g. Ec. 1:3; Jn. 4:13) and as narrow as a single individual (note the intertwined singulars and plurals in v 1, more evident in av, rv). The Bible closes with an echo of it (Rev. 22:17), and Jesus made the same identification of come … and eat with ‘come to me’ in Jn. 6:35. The paradox of buy … without money throws into relief the twin facts of sure possession and total dependence which are implied in grace (cf. the union of the undoubting and the undeserving in Heb. 4:16).
3–5 These verses raise the invitation to the fully personal plane, engaging mind and will and drawing the hearers into covenant, to share in the world mission of the Messiah. David is named only here in chs. 40–66, but this is enough to identify the kingly Messiah of 7:14 etc. with the Servant of 42:1 etc. for whom the nations wait. (The suggestion that the promise given to David in 2 Sa. 7:12–16 is here transferred from king to people, goes ill with the emphasis in v 3b on its permanence. Rather, David’s vision in Ps. 18:43–45, 49, of nations subdued for a witness to the Lord, is enlarged by the prospect of nations converted: cf. v 5 with Zc. 8:20–23; 9:9–10).
55:1–2. God invites people in need to come (this word occurs four times in v. 1) to Him. By coming they indicate that they are trusting in and relying on Him for salvation and are agreeing to obey His commandments. The blessings God gives them are available without cost. Salvation is a free gift of God, whether it refers to spiritual redemption or physical deliverance. Probably both are intended here. The Lord asked the people how they could be interested in other things besides Himself as He is the only One who can bring genuine satisfaction. Throughout all history people have tried to find satisfaction through many things other than God.
(2) An everlasting covenant.
55:1 The Spirit of God sends out the evangelistic invitation to Israel to return, and at the same time invites everyone everywhere to the gospel feast. All that is necessary is a consciousness of need (thirst). The blessings are the waters of the Holy Spirit, the wine of joy, and the milk of the good Word of God. They are the free gift of grace, without money and price.
55:2–5 In its alienation from God, Israel has been wasting its energy and resources. True satisfaction and lasting pleasure are found only in the Lord. If Israel returns to the Lord, they will receive all the sure mercies promised to David in the everlasting covenant (see Psalm 89:3, 4, 28, 29). These blessings are fulfilled in the Lord Jesus and in His glorious reign. The Gentile nations, too, will share in the benefits of the kingdom, and there will be amicable relations between Israel and the nations.
55:1, 2 Ho is an exclamation of pity. Everyone: The ones addressed at first are the covenant nation, the remnant who respond to God. But they will be the means for bringing the same message of God’s salvation to the nations (v. 5). Thirsts is a metaphor for desiring what satisfies a person’s spirit (41:17; 44:3; Pss. 42:1, 2; 63:1; Matt. 5:6). Waters is a metaphor for the enjoyment of salvation in God (John 4:10–14; 7:37). Wine and milk are symbols of complete satisfaction (v. 2). Not only does God’s salvation supply what is necessary for life, but it also provides what brings joy. You who have no money … buy expresses that salvation cannot be bought, but is a free gift for those who desire it (52:3; Deut. 8:3; Rom. 6:23).
55:3 Incline your ear and Hear are synonyms for come to Me. The everlasting covenant (54:10) refers to the Davidic covenant and to the New Covenant. The sure mercies of David are God’s promises of an eternal Offspring, throne, and kingdom (2 Sam. 7:12–16; 1 Kin. 8:23–26; Ps. 89:19–37). The pronoun Me includes the Servant of the Lord, Jesus the Messiah (48:16; 61:1). you: The promises of the Davidic covenant are extended to all who come to God; they are fulfilled in Jesus Christ (4:2; 7:14; 9:6; 11:1–5) and His church (Rom. 16:20).
55:4, 5 God’s fulfillment of the promises to the house of David, climaxing in the resurrection of Christ, serves as a witness to the nations (43:10, 12; 44:8). Jesus Christ is a leader … for the people (42:6; 49:6; Dan. 9:25; Heb. 2:10; 12:2).
55:1 Every one. The Servant’s redemptive work and glorious kingdom are for the benefit of all who are willing to come (53:6). The prophet invites his readers to participate in the benefits obtained by the suffering of the Servant in chap. 53 and described in chap. 54. no money … Without money … without cost. Benefits in the Servant’s kingdom will be free because of His redemptive work (53:6, 8, 11; Eph 2:8, 9). wine and milk. Symbols for abundance, satisfaction, and prosperity (SS 5:1; Joel 3:18).
55:2 not bread. This is the “bread of deceit” (Pr 20:17) and not the “bread of life” (Jn 6:32–35).
55:3 everlasting covenant. The New Covenant that God will give to Israel (54:8; 61:8; Jer 31:31–34; 32:40; 50:5; Eze 16:60; 37:26; Heb 13:20). faithful mercies shown to David. The Davidic Covenant promised David that his seed would be ruler over Israel in an everlasting kingdom (2Sa 7:8, 16; Ps 89:27–29). Paul connected the resurrection of Christ with this promise (Ac 13:34), since it was an essential event in fulfilling this promise. If He had not fully satisfied God by His atoning death, He would not have risen; if He had not risen from the dead, He could not eventually sit on David’s earthly throne. But He did rise and will fulfill the kingly role (v. 4). Cf. Jer 30:9; Eze 34:23, 24; 37:24, 25; Da 9:25; Hos 3:5; Mic 5:2. The whole world will come to Him as the Great King (v. 5).
55:1 Come, everyone who thirsts. The invitation is urgent in tone and universal in scope, addressing a deep spiritual longing to “seek the Lord while he may be found” (v. 6). Thirst is not a problem but an opportunity (cf. John 7:37–39). come … come.… Come. This is all one needs to do in order to find mercy in God.
55:2 Why do you spend your money? Isaiah exposes how costly but disappointing unbelief is. Listen diligently to me is how the banquet of the gospel of Christ is enjoyed (and eat what is good).
55:2 God’s offer of food is fulfilled in Christ, who is the food and drink of eternal life (John 6:52–58).
55:3 an everlasting covenant. This term appears in 61:8; Jer. 32:40; Ezek. 37:26, referring to the experience of the returned exiles. steadfast, sure love for David. The blessing is focused on the house of David, out of which the messianic servant will arise (cited from the Septuagint in Acts 13:34).
55:4 God established David (v. 3) as the authoritative world ruler—as a spokesman for God and as an ancestor of the Messiah (cf. Ps. 18:49–50).
55:5 You addresses the glorious son of David, the messianic servant, through whom God attracts the nations, bringing history to its appointed consummation (cf. Rom. 1:1–5). a nation that you do not know. I.e., people previously outside of God’s covenant (cf. Eph. 2:11–12).
55:1 come to the waters In 44:3, Yahweh’s blessing is likened to the renewing power of water. Likewise, the promised salvation provides satisfaction for all the exiles’ spiritual needs.
Jesus alludes to this verse in John 7:37–38; the people’s response in John 7:40–41 demonstrates His allusion was understood as a messianic reference. Since the speaker in Isa 55:1–5 is God, the connection made by John’s Gospel reinforces the idea of a divine messiah.
55:3 an everlasting covenant The renewal of a covenant relationship between Yahweh and His people will be enduring and based on His promises to David (see Psa 89:33–35). The restored covenant is an everlasting covenant (Isa 61:8), a covenant of peace (54:10; Ezek 37:26), and a new covenant (Jer 31:31). This new covenant replaces the conditional and temporary covenant God made with Israel—which they had broken (see note on Isa 54:10).
55:4 a witness to the peoples Yahweh’s relationship with David and the establishment of David’s earthly power was a symbol foreshadowing the power and reign of the Davidic Messiah. The Messiah would rule the world with complete authority (see 11:1–10).
a leader and a commander for the peoples Foreshadows the Messiah alluded to by Peter in Acts 5:31. The Messiah’s political role is described in Isa 9:6–7.
55:5 You shall call a nation In v. 3, “you” is plural and refers to the people with whom Yahweh will establish a new covenant. Here, “you” is singular, suggesting it refers to an individual. Since the person has been glorified, it may refer to the messianic Servant (compare 4:2). The salvation brought by the Messiah will be offered to Gentile nations, not just Israel. The salvation of the nations is part of God’s plan (2:2–5; 19:24–25).
55:1 everyone. This address follows logically on the previous section (vv. 13, 17) and expresses the worldwide applicability of the gospel.
thirsts … no money. The thirst is for spiritual things that money cannot buy (52:3; Deut. 8:3; Ps. 42:2; 63:1; Prov. 9:5, 6; Matt. 5:6; John 7:37, 38; Rev. 21:6; 22:17).
waters. Isaiah frequently describes the new era of salvation, God’s kingdom and its divine blessings, in terms of an abundance of water (1:30, 31 note).
buy … without money. This paradox signifies that salvation is a free gift for anyone who desires it (Matt. 11:28; Rom. 10:13; Titus 3:5).
wine and milk. These are symbols of complete satisfaction.
55:3 you. The promises of the Davidic covenant are now extended to all who come to God.
everlasting covenant. In the covenant as given to David, God promised him a permanent throne and lasting dynasty (2 Sam. 7:12–16; 1 Kin. 8:23–26; Ps. 89:27–37). David’s royal house will rule over the nations. These elements are fulfilled in Christ and His church (4:2; 7:14; 9:6; 11:1, 2 and notes).
55:4 made him a witness. This was accomplished especially by raising Jesus Christ of the house of David from the dead (Acts 13:34).
55:1, 2 In ch. 55 the Lord issues a general call to all who would call themselves by His name, to abandon the Babylons of this world and to find their satisfaction and their security in Him alone, and in that city of joy and peace that He will build. This passage is a call to revival for all who have wandered far from the Lord or from that grace which is the basis for our relationship with Him. It is also a call to salvation for any who have not known Him, promising a free but abundant and eternal life that is better than money can buy. The call is issued to the thirsty and the penniless—all who will recognize their need for spiritual blessing and their inability to meet the need themselves. “Waters” and “wine and milk” are symbols of abundant spiritual blessings.
55:3 The reference to the “sure mercies of David” speaks of the Davidic covenant (2 Sam. 7), which promises that a descendant of David will rule eternally over a kingdom that will bless all the nations (cf. Luke 1:32, 33; 2:30–32). Verses 3–5 promise that all who respond to God’s call will benefit from that covenant as members of the royal family, princes of the King. Furthermore, they will become witnesses to the nations of God’s grace and power (v. 5; cf. Acts 1:8).
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 MacDonald, W. (1995). Believer’s Bible Commentary: Old and New Testaments. (A. Farstad, Ed.) (pp. 981–982). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.
 MacArthur, J. F., Jr. (2006). The MacArthur study Bible: New American Standard Bible. (Is 55:1–3). Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers.
 Sproul, R. C. (Ed.). (2005). The Reformation Study Bible: English Standard Version (p. 1031). Orlando, FL; Lake Mary, FL: Ligonier Ministries.
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