Daily Archives: July 1, 2019

July 1 Freedom from Sin

Scripture Reading: Psalm 25:8–18

Key Verse: Psalm 25:18

Look on my affliction and my pain,

And forgive all my sins.

Sometimes the sin in our hearts clutches us so tightly that we wonder if anyone sees the pain on our faces. We wonder if we must always mask the darkness beneath the surface. Despite confessing that our hope is in Jesus Christ, a sense of hopelessness can breed within us. But God wants to shatter the bondage of sin and shame into which our lives may have fallen.

We must take the first step in going to Him and asking Him to free us from the sin in our lives. Oftentimes, we fear going to God with our sins because we misunderstand the heart of our heavenly Father. He doesn’t backhand us—He opens His hands to receive us back into His arms. No matter what particular sin we have committed or how many times we have done it, God’s grace and forgiveness reaches deeper, desiring not only to cleanse us but to transform us. He wants to set us free.

The change may not always be instant, but as we commit to turning to Him during our moments of temptation—and times of failure—God will begin to bring freedom to our lives. The sin in our lives that once held us so tightly will be washed away as waves of the Lord’s freeing forgiveness crash over us.

Lord, all I need to do when I have sinned is come before You. There is no sin deep enough to separate my repentant heart from You.[1]


[1] Stanley, C. F. (2006). Pathways to his presence (p. 192). Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers.

July 1 The Great Escape

Scripture Reading: Titus 3:3–7

Key Verses: Colossians 1:13–14

He has delivered us from the power of darkness and conveyed us into the kingdom of the Son of His love, in whom we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of sins.

Harry Houdini was a master escape artist. Tied by chains and ropes and placed in confining quarters, he could be counted on to free himself from his predicaments. One day Houdini did not escape—but died.

Although the nonbeliever may invent all kinds of escape devices to deal with his life on earth—drugs, vacations, riches, pleasures, good works—he never can escape eternal death. Born in sin and alienated from the Source of life, the Lord Jesus Christ, man is bound by the chains of death. All of his attempts to avoid the divine decree of eternal punishment are utterly futile.

There is only one path of escape from the judgment of everlasting separation from the God of the ages: personal faith in and reliance upon the Savior, Christ Jesus. The instant a person turns to Christ to forgive his sins, he has made the great escape from eternal death into eternal life.

What an escape! From darkness to light. From despair to hope. From futility to meaning. From the domain of Satan to the kingdom of God (Col. 1:13–14).

Have you looked to Christ as your only escape from sin’s penalty of death? If not, run to the cross today—where Jesus shed His blood to pay for all of your sins—to receive your everlasting liberation.

Dear Lord, You released the chains of death that bound me and gave me eternal life. You brought me from darkness to light, from despair to hope, from futility to meaning. Thank You for making me part of Your kingdom.[1]


[1] Stanley, C. F. (1999). On holy ground (p. 192). Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers.

July 1 Mustard Seed Faith

Scripture reading: Mark 11:23–26

Key verse: Matthew 17:20

Jesus said to them, “Because of your unbelief; for assuredly, I say to you, if you have faith as a mustard seed, you will say to this mountain, ‘Move from here to there,’ and it will move; and nothing will be impossible for you.”

Mary Damron refuses to stare at her mountain, not even the impoverished one she calls home. Mary is from the poor coal mining hollows of West Virginia, but she is rich beyond measure.

In his book Living Beyond the Limits, Franklin Graham devotes a chapter to Mary, who is a walking testimony of the life-changing power of faith in Christ. In 1994, Mary learned Graham needed gift-filled shoe boxes to distribute to the war-scarred children of Bosnia. Instead of focusing on her struggling Appalachian family, Mary traversed her community, asking for donations from churches and groups.

The day after Thanksgiving, she delivered to Graham twelve hundred shoe boxes in a twenty-ton truck. A year later, Mary delivered more than six thousand shoe boxes in time for Christmas. Her devotion and uncanny faith resulted not only in Graham’s sending her to Bosnia to help deliver gifts, but also in President Bill Clinton’s honoring her at the White House. Mary boldly asked the president for permission to pray for him, and she did.

The story of Mary Damron can be duplicated by anybody. She started small, with a mustard seed of faith and a mountain-sized heart for Jesus. And just as He will do for you whenever you are within His will, He made sure nothing stopped Mary’s twenty-ton truck full of shoe boxes.

Lord, give me mustard seed faith to move mountains. Use me for Your glory![1]


[1] Stanley, C. F. (2000). Into His presence (p. 192). Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers.

Corporations Drop LGBT Community Like Hot Tamale Now That Pride Month Over — The Babylon Bee

U.S.—With pride month having ended, corporations across the nation who bravely took a stand for LGBT rights are now tearing down rainbow banners and throwing colorful promotional products in the garbage at an alarming rate. “Take the rainbows down guys, they’re giving me a headache,” Carl Krumpitz, CEO of fortune 500 company Milner Motor Oil commanded a work crew on the morning of July 1st. “I don’t know why the heck motor oil needs to have an opinion on sexuality but whatever, it’s July now. Get out the red, white, and blue. And make me a Martini!”

LGBT activist Carol Gaines told reporters, “I’m not sure what products I should buy now that they aren’t all blatantly pandering to me.”

“It’s so nice of these companies to take such a big financial hit for one month out of the year to support such a controversial cause,” said another gay activist, Carla Gainsley. “The bravery is just stunning. The gay community—and we are a community—appreciate it.”

via Corporations Drop LGBT Community Like Hot Tamale Now That Pride Month Over — The Babylon Bee

Rent Is Becoming Unaffordable For Many U.S. Workers | ZeroHedge News

The National Low Income Housing Coalition has published its latest “Out of Reach” report which shows that renting is becoming increasingly unaffordable for countless Americans.

Its central statistic is the Housing Wage which is an estimate of the hourly wage a full-time worker must earn to rent a homewithout spending more than 30 percent of his or her income on housing costs. As Statista’s Niall McCarthy notes, for 2019, the Housing Wage is $22.96 and $18.65 for a modest two and one-bedroom flat respectively based on the “fair market rent”.

A worker earning the federal wage would have to put in 127 hours every week – equivalent to more than two full-time jobs – to afford a two-bedroom apartment. It isn’t just a regional issue – there isn’t a single state, metro area or county in the U.S. where a full-time worker earning the minimum wage can afford to rent a two-bedroom property.

It isn’t just workers on the minimum wage who are effected.

The report also states that the average renter’s hourly wage is $1.08 less than the Housing Wage for a one-bedroom rental and $5.39 less than a two-bedroom rental. That means that an average renter in the U.S. has to work a 52 hour week, something that becomes increasingly difficult if that renter is a single parent of someone struggling with a disability. When it comes to the situation in different occupations, a median-wage worker in eight of the country’s largest ten occupations does not earn enough to afford a one-bedroom apartment.

You will find more infographics at Statista

Software developers, general managers and nurses are able to meet both Housing Wages but for many other occupations and accomodations, renting is becoming increasingly difficult. Medical assistants, laborers and janitors are among those falling short while the gap back to minimum wage workers is even greater still. Worryingly, these are the ten jobs that are expected to see the biggest growth over the coming decade and that is likely to result in an even greater disparity between wages and housing costs by 2026.

Source: Rent Is Becoming Unaffordable For Many U.S. Workers

A Friend of Women: Trump Kicks ‘Transgender’ Men Out of Women’s Shelters — Pulpit & Pen

Thanks to former President Obama, homeless shelters were made even more dangerous due to a ruling that forced them to accept people into whichever shelter or sleeping space they wanted, based upon their gender preference. Sitting President Trump has now reversed that rule, allowing shelters to take “biological sex” into consideration instead of gender preference.

Imagine being a battered woman, now homeless because you’ve fled your abusive boyfriend or husband. Having been raped and beaten by abusive men in your life, you seek housing at your city’s local homeless shelter. but because of an Obama ruling, you have to sleep next to a man who is pretending to be a woman. He’s allowed to shower next to you and follow you in and out of the restroom. Sleeping with one eye open, this would be a nightmare for women in need.

Caring for homeless women and children while applying a dose of common sense, President Donald J. Trump has reversed the 2016 Obama ruling allowing people admittance based upon their preferred gender. That Department of Housing and Urban Development ruling insisted that biology didn’t matter, and gender identity had to be respected over actual gender.

Now, under the leadership of Ben Carson, the Department of Housing and Urban Development will ensure that women will be a top priority at women’s homeless shelters.

The abstract of the department’s proposal reads as follows, “This proposed rule provides … shelter operators under HUD programs which permit single-sex or sex-segregated facilities (such as bathrooms or temporary, emergency shelters and other buildings and facilities with physical limitations or configurations that require and are permitted to have shared sleeping quarters or bathing facilities) may establish a policy – consistent with state and local law – by which such Shelter Provider considers an individual’s sex for the purposes of determining accommodation within such shelters and for purposes of determining sex for admission to any facility or portion thereof.”

So now, such shelters, though permitted to take gender-identity into consideration, will not be forced to make decisions solely based upon gender identity and can weigh biological sex in considering an individual for admittance.

Thankfully, it will now be harder for perverts and pedophiles masquerading as the wrong gender to prey upon the abused homeless and destitute. More and more, it appears that President Trump is a friend of women.

via A Friend of Women: Trump Kicks ‘Transgender’ Men Out of Women’s Shelters — Pulpit & Pen

Kamala Harris’ Ex-Lover Willie Brown: No Democrats Can Beat Trump, Including Kamala

Former San Francisco Mayor Willie Brown, who admitted earlier this year to having an extramarital affair with Democratic presidential candidate Sen. Kamala Harris (D-CA), wrote in his column over the weekend that none of the 2020 Democratic presidential candidates can beat President Donald Trump.

Source: Kamala Harris’ Ex-Lover Willie Brown: No Democrats Can Beat Trump, Including Kamala

CNN Admits 2020 Democrats’ “Voters, You’re All Wrong” Strategy Is The Dumbest Ever | ZeroHedge News

Democratic presidential candidates appear to have painted themselves into a corner – abandoning their giant moderate base in order to ‘out-left’ each other, while promoting “radical, nonsensical, unpopular ideas that please only a slim minority of your own people” according to CNN‘s S. E. Cupp.

In a blistering monologue on Saturday, Cupp suggested that the 2020 candidates may be setting themselves up for failure in the general election with one of the “dumbest strategies” she’s ever encountered.

Proposals that were widely agreed upon by the candidates included; support for a woman’s unfettered access to abortion, free heathcare for people who live here illegally. Other items that had some support on the debate stage; government-run healthcare for all, free college tuition, and decriminalizing illegal border crossings. 

For people who, I don’t know, think that there should be some abortion restrictions, who believe we should probably work on increasing access to healthcare for American citizens, people who might like to keep their private insurance – who don’t want to pay other students’ college debt, who cross the border legally and pay taxes.”

Are there any Democrats running for those people? People who, I’m guessing probably constitute a majority?

Who stood up on that stage this week and attempted to reach any disaffected Trump  voters? Moderates? Independents? I guess in the Democratic party those folks don’t matter. They’re unimportant. They don’t count.

Only the far-left progressives who believe government is the cure-all for every problem deserve a presidential candidate’s attention and concern. The rest of you, well, you’re just wrong. If you think the economy is doing well, you’re wrong according to Elizabeth Warren and Cory Booker. All 71% of you. If you think you’re health insurance works just fine and you’d like to keep it, you’re wrong, according to Warren, Bill de Blasio and Bernie Sanders.

If you think record unemployment is a good sign of a strong economy, you’re wrong – it isn’t, according to Kamala Harris.

Telling a majority of voters you’re all wrong has to be one of the dumbest strategies I’ve ever encountered.

If this is the message Democrats have for voters, they should all just change their slogans to “I know better than you.”

If the aim is to beat the President, I’m pretty sure that’s a loser idea.

So is pitching radical, nonsensical, unpopular ideas that please only a slim minority of your own people. In fact, the winner of both debates might just have been Donald Trump.

Watch:

Source: CNN Admits 2020 Democrats’ “Voters, You’re All Wrong” Strategy Is The Dumbest Ever

How a Christian Patriot Might Love His Wayward Country — Denny Burk

I love G. K. Chesterton’s reflections on what it means to be a Christian patriot. If you have never read it, I encourage you to read “The Flag of the World” in his classic work Orthodoxy. Chesterton contends that love of one’s homeland is not like house-hunting—an experience in which you weigh the pros and cons of a place and choose accordingly. He writes:

A man belongs to this world before he begins to ask if it is nice to belong to it. He has fought for the flag, and often won heroic victories for the flag long before he has ever enlisted. To put shortly what seems the essential matter, he has a loyalty long before he has any admiration.

We do not choose our homeland. It is something that we are born into. Thus our acceptance of our home is not like a house that we can leave when we tire of it. It is like the love we have for our family:

It is the fortress of our family, with the flag flying on the turret, and the more miserable it is the less we should leave it. The point is not that this world is too sad to love or too glad not to love; the point is that when you do love a thing, its gladness is a reason for loving it, and its sadness a reason for loving it more.

Love for family is not based on what is deserved. It is a loyalty that precedes any prior condition. Because love of country is not based on pros and cons—because it is unconditional love—true patriotism means that we must seek the nation’s good and flourishing no matter its condition. This love therefore becomes transformative.

True patriotism motivates reform and improvement because it is realistic about the nation’s shortcomings. A man may love his mother unconditionally, but that love does not mean that he is indifferent to her if she is a drunk. His love moves him to seek her welfare and improvement. His love does not simply affirm her sad condition. In the same way, the patriot loves his home not because she is perfect. He knows that she isn’t. The patriot’s love moves him to work for her welfare and improvement.

If Christian patriots love America as mothers love children, arbitrarily, because it is theirs, America may yet become fairer than Florence. Why? Because that kind of love seeks the nation’s perfection. In Chesterton’s words:

People first paid honour to a spot and afterwards gained glory for it. Men did not love Rome because she was great. She was great because they had loved her.

This kind of patriotism does not close its eyes to the sins that bedevil the nation. One cannot excuse evil simply because it is being committed by the nation that we love and are loyal to. Chesterton says that it is evil to “defend the indefensible.” Such is the anti-patriot, and “he will not wash the world, but whitewash the world.”

The real challenge for the patriot is the same challenge that the Christian faces in his relationship to the world writ large:

One must somehow find a way of loving the world without trusting it; somehow one must love the world without being worldly.

This analogy is instructive, and it reveals an irony that may lead us toward the best kind of patriotism. After all, the Bible tells us that God loves the world while telling us not to.

“For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him should not perish, but have eternal life” (John 3:16).

“Do not love the world, nor the things in the world. If anyone loves the world, the love of the Father is not in him” (1 John 2:15).

How can these two expressions be reconciled? They reveal a love for the world that is good and a love for the world that is bad. The evil love is the kind that loves the world for its vices. The good love is that kind that seeks the world’s welfare and transformation.

Likewise, the good love of the world produces the best kind of patriotism—a love for the nation that works for its good and welfare. It’s a love that seeks the nation’s good and transformation even when the nation is wayward—in fact, precisely because she is wayward.

I think patriotism for the Christian will become more difficult in the days ahead. Our nation is wayward in so many ways. In many ways it is becoming more hostile to Christians. For that reason, our calling will be to love a nation that may very well not love us back. Our children may be called to love a nation that makes itself an enemy to the true faith. Nevertheless, the call to love the nation and not its vices endures for us and our children.

This is what Chesterton calls the “mystic patriotism”—the love for nation that is undeserved. It requires a love that is supernatural. Who is adequate for these things?

“Not that we are adequate in ourselves to consider anything as coming from ourselves, but our adequacy is from God, who also made us adequate as servants of a new covenant, not of the letter, but of the Spirit; for the letter kills, but the Spirit gives life” (2 Cor. 3:5-6).

This is the love that has been shed abroad in the hearts of God’s people, and we have been called for such a time as this.

via How a Christian Patriot Might Love His Wayward Country — Denny Burk

July 1, 2019 Afternoon Verse Of The Day

The Reverence He Deserves

Now, Father, glorify Me together with Yourself, with the glory which I had with You before the world was. (17:5)

Having accomplished everything according to the predetermined plan of God, Jesus knew that He would be exalted to the place where He had been before His incarnation—at the glorious right hand of His Father (cf. Mark 16:19; Eph. 1:20). With that exaltation in sight, Jesus expressed His desire to return to the glory of heaven. Therefore He asked the Father to glorify Him, together with the Father, with the glory He had shared with the Father before the world was. The apostle John described the eternal fellowship Christ had enjoyed with the Father in the prologue to his gospel: “In the beginning was the Word [the Son], and the Word was with (lit. ‘face-to-face with’) God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God” (John 1:1–2). After an earthly life of submission and humiliation during the incarnation, Jesus was ready to return to the full glory that awaited Him at the Father’s right hand. It was time for His coronation, which Paul described in Philippians 2:9–11:

For this reason also, God highly exalted Him, and bestowed on Him the name which is above every name, so that at the name of Jesus every knee will bow, of those who are in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and that every tongue will confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.

Jesus looked beyond the humiliation and suffering in obedience, His death on the cross (Phil. 2:5–8), to the glory that awaited Him upon His return to heaven. The glory He would receive was rightfully His, both by His divine title (as the second member of the Trinity) and by His perfect submission (since He had submitted to His Father perfectly). He also knew that His death would bring eternal life to all who would believe in Him, thus causing joy in heaven (Luke 15:7, 10) and adding voices to the eternal choir of those who will praise and worship Him forever. The contemplation of those marvelous realities enabled Him to rejoice in the cross, even though He despised the shame of bearing sin (Heb. 12:2) and the horror of being forsaken by the Father (Matt. 27:46).

As those on the other side of the cross, removed from it by nearly two thousand years, believers must never lose sight of the glory and honor Christ deserves because of His redemptive work. What He endured on the cross is now the anthem of Christian praise and worship. And it will be for all of eternity, as believers forever praise the Lamb who was slain (Rev. 5:9). Though the Gospels record His earthly life and ministry—including the agony and suffering of His passion—it must always be remembered that He is no longer on the cross or in the tomb. He is even now the glorified Son of God, seated at His Father’s right hand in power and glory (Rev. 1:13–20; cf. Dan. 7:13–14). The joy of seeing and praising Him in triumph awaits all those who love Him, while all who reject Him will be rejected by Him (Matt. 7:23; 25:41).

The glorious truth is that the cross made eternal life possible for all who sincerely believe in Jesus Christ (Rom. 10:9–10), and even before the cross all who genuinely repented of sin and trusted the forgiveness and mercy of God as their only hope (cf. Isa. 55:6–7). Were it not for the cross, there would be no salvation from sin for anyone in any age, no gospel of grace, no hope for this life, and no eternal destiny but hell. Without the cross, the eternal plan of salvation that God promised from before the beginning of time would never have come to fruition. The contemplation of those truths should cause everyone who knows and loves the Lord Jesus Christ to say with the apostle Paul, “But may it never be that I would boast, except in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, through which the world has been crucified to me, and I to the world” (Gal. 6:14).[1]


5. The glory which I had with thee. He desires to be glorified with the Father, not that the Father may glorify him secretly, without any witnesses, but that, having been received into heaven, he may give a magnificent display of his greatness and power, that every knee may bow to him, (Philip. 2:10.) Consequently, that phrase in the former clause, with the Father, is contrasted with earthly and fading glory, as Paul describes the blessed immortality of Christ, by saying that he died to sin once, but now he liveth to God, (Rom. 6:10.)

The glory which I had with thee before the world was. He now declares that he desires nothing that does not strictly belong to him, but only that he may appear in the flesh, such as he was before the creation of the world; or, to speak more plainly, that the Divine majesty, which he had always possessed, may now be illustriously displayed in the person of the Mediator, and in the human flesh with which he was clothed. This is a remarkable passage, which teaches us that Christ is not a God who has been newly contrived, or who has existed only for a time; for if his glory was eternal, himself also has always been. Besides, a manifest distinction between the person of Christ and the person of the Father is here expressed; from which we infer, that he is not only the eternal God, but also that he is the eternal Word of God, begotten by the Father before all ages.[2]


Mission Accomplished

John 17:4–5

“I glorified you on earth, having accomplished the work that you gave me to do. And now, Father, glorify me in your own presence with the glory that I had with you before the world existed.” (John 17:4–5)

Few satisfactions in life rival that of a job well done. Anyone who follows a task through to completion is rewarded with the approval of others and a personal sense of achievement. It is, of course, true that nothing we do in this life merits true and ultimate satisfaction, since none of our works is perfectly good. Moreover, our work is virtually never finished. An immaculately clean house soon gets dirty. Every workplace is constantly beset with new problems and challenges that must be met. For this reason, our job satisfaction is only partial and fleeting at best.

There is one person, however, who is completely and eternally satisfied with his work, having perfectly accomplished his mission in life. Jesus Christ prayed out of his own satisfaction and the Father’s approval of the work that he achieved to perfection for our salvation: “I glorified you on earth,” Jesus prayed to the Father, “having accomplished the work that you gave me to do” (John 17:4).

Christ Received a Work

As Jesus faced his death on the night of his arrest, he looked upon his life with a perfectly clean conscience. Frédéric Godet comments: “He does not perceive in His life, at this supreme moment, either any evil committed, or even any good omitted. The duty of each hour has been perfectly fulfilled. There has been in this human life which He has now behind him, not only no spot, but no deficiency.” The words of Psalm 40:7–8 were the watchword of Jesus’ life: “Behold, I have come; in the scroll of the book it is written of me: I delight to do your will, O my God; your law is within my heart.’ ”

Not only did Jesus perfectly obey the Father all his life, but he prays about a specific mission that he came into the world to fulfill. He prays to the Father, “I glorified you on earth, having accomplished the work that you gave me to do” (John 17:4).

When did Jesus receive this work from God the Father? There is ample evidence in the Bible that in eternity past the members of the Trinity entered into a pact for the redemption of the elect. This agreement is known by theologians as the covenant of redemption. We see evidence of this precreation covenant in John 17:4, where Jesus speaks of accomplishing a prearranged work, for which he receives a stipulated reward. He had previously told the disciples: “My food is to do the will of him who sent me and to accomplish his work” (4:34). The book of Hebrews concludes with a benediction appealing to “the God of peace who brought again from the dead our Lord Jesus, the great shepherd of the sheep, by the blood of the eternal covenant” (Heb. 13:20). This eternal covenant, fulfilled on the cross, is mentioned by Peter when he speaks of Jesus as the Lamb slain “before the foundation of the world” (1 Peter 1:20). Isaiah foretold Jesus’ crucifixion in terms of this precreation pact, saying, “It was the will of the Lord to crush him; he has put him to grief; when his soul makes an offering for guilt, he shall see his offspring.… Out of the anguish of his soul he shall see and be satisfied; … he shall divide the spoil with the strong, because he poured out his soul to death and was numbered with the transgressors” (Isa. 53:10–12). These verses describe the cross in terms of Christ’s reward for fulfilling his mission of salvation.

Louis Berkhof summarizes the biblical data concerning this precreation pact: “The Father required of the Son, who appeared in this covenant as the Surety and Head of His people, and as the Last Adam, that he should make amends for the sin of Adam and of those whom the Father had given him, and should do what Adam failed to do by keeping the law and thus securing eternal life for all His spiritual progeny.” This mission involved the following particulars:

  1. God the Son should take up a human nature by being born of a woman, thus experiencing all the weakness and infirmity of our nature, except for sin (Gal. 4:4–5; Heb. 2:10–15; 4:15);
  2. he, the Son of God, would place himself under the law, making himself liable for his own obedience and for the penalty of his people’s sins (Ps. 40:8; Matt. 5:17–18; John 8:28–29; Phil. 2:6–8); and
  3. after securing forgiveness and eternal life for his people, he would send the Spirit to apply this salvation through the new birth into saving faith, through which his people would be saved by grace (John 10:16; 16:14–15; Heb. 2:10–13; 7:25).

For his part, God the Father pledged a number of blessings to the Son:

  1. the Father would give to the Son a people in reward for his accomplished work, “a seed so numerous that it would be a multitude which no man could number” (Pss. 22:27; 72:17);
  2. the Father “would prepare the Son a body, which would be a fit tabernacle for him” (Luke 1:35; Heb. 10:5);
  3. the Father would send the Holy Spirit to equip Jesus for his divine work in the flesh, and with the Son would send the Holy Spirit to regenerate and sanctify the people given to Christ;
  4. the Father would, upon the Son’s mission accomplishment, “commit to Him all power in heaven and on earth for the government of the world and of His Church (Matt. 28:18; Eph. 1:20–22; Phil. 2:9–11); and would finally reward Him as Mediator with the glory which He as the Son of God had with the Father before the world was (John 17:5).”

Understanding the covenant of redemption shows us how it is that Jesus secured our salvation: he fulfilled the eternal terms by which the Father has bound himself to grant Christ’s people eternal life. Thus, our salvation does not rest on the brittle foundation of our personal faith. We receive salvation through faith alone, because Christ accomplished our salvation by his works, fulfilling a covenant with the Father that was sealed in eternity past.

Lest we think of the covenant of redemption as a matter of academic and abstract theology, the Puritan John Flavel reminds us of how personally this covenant involved each believer in Christ. He imagines a dialogue between the Father and the Son. The Father says, “My Son, here is a company of poor miserable souls, that have utterly undone themselves, and now lie open to my justice! Justice demands satisfaction for them, or will satisfy itself in the eternal ruin of them: What shall be done for these souls?” Christ replies, “O my Father, such is my love to, and pity for them, that rather than they shall perish eternally, I will be responsible for them as their Surety; bring in all thy bills, that I may see what they owe thee; Lord, bring them all in, that there may be no after-reckonings with them; at my hand shalt thou require it. I will rather choose to suffer thy wrath than that they should suffer it: upon me, my Father, upon me be all their debt.” “But my Son,” says God, “if thou undertake for them, thou must reckon to pay the last mite, expect no abatements; if I spare them, I will not spare thee.” And Christ replied, “Content, Father, let it be so; charge it all upon me, I am able to discharge it: and though it prove a kind of undoing to me, though it impoverish all my riches, empty all my treasures … yet I am content to undertake it.”

Flavel concludes from that exchange, which resonates with the biblical record, that we cannot remain ungrateful to One so pure who bore our stain, One so rich who took our poverty, and One so innocent who paid the penalty for our guilt because of love. How can we, he asks, ignore so great a salvation or complain about the duty of obedience to Christ? Flavel writes, “O if you knew the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ in this his wonderful [compassion] for you, you could not do it.”

Christ Completed His Work

Throughout his life and ministry, Jesus referred constantly to being sent by the Father on a saving mission (John 3:16, etc.), saying that he “must work the works of him who sent me” (9:4). Now, praying on the brink of his arrest, Jesus sees the completion of the work given to him by God, speaking of having “accomplished the work that you gave me to do” (17:4). Jesus includes the cross among his finished works, since, as Augustine asserted, “Christ says He has finished that which He most surely knows He will finish.” Praying in the disciples’ hearing, Jesus looked back on his taking up a human nature, his perfect, lifelong obedience to the letter and spirit of God’s holy law, and his faithful rebuff of Satan’s attempt to dissuade Jesus during his forty days in the wilderness. J. C. Ryle writes: “He did what the first Adam failed to do, and all the saints in every age fail to do: He kept the law perfectly, and by so keeping it brought in everlasting righteousness for all them that believe.”7 Paul explains Jesus’ covenant perfection as the foreordained remedy for Adam’s covenant failure and ours: “For as by the one man’s disobedience the many were made sinners, so by the one man’s obedience the many will be made righteous” (Rom. 5:19).

All that remained was for Jesus to bear the cross, as his sovereign will was committed to do. By his perfect life, lived on our behalf, Jesus provided the righteousness that his people lacked in themselves but need in order to stand in the holy presence of God. Now, Jesus would redeem us from the guilt of our sin. Isaiah foretold: “He was wounded for our transgressions; he was crushed for our iniquities; upon him was the chastisement that brought us peace, and with his stripes we are healed.… He poured out his soul to death and was numbered with the transgressors; yet he bore the sin of many, and makes intercession for the transgressors” (Isa. 53:5, 12).

William Barclay, the often-helpful but sometimes quite liberal commentator on the Bible, compared Jesus’ achievement to that of a courier boy who died delivering his message during the German bombing of Bristol. His dying words were: “I have delivered my message.” Barclay mentions another example from the First World War, when a battlefield engineer was celebrated for sacrificing his life to connect the line that enabled the message to get through. Barclay compares this to what Jesus accomplished: “He had given his life that the message might get through. That is exactly what Jesus did. He had completed His task; He had brought God’s love to men. For Him that meant the Cross.” It is true that Jesus delivered a message of God’s love on the cross. But it is false that this was the sum of what Jesus achieved. Jesus did not die merely so that God’s message of salvation would get through to us: God’s Son died actually to achieve our salvation by laying down his life as an atoning Sacrifice for our sins. Therefore, while Jesus prays now of completing his work, he would not utter the decisive words, “It is finished” (John 19:30), until the moment came for him to die for our sins. Jesus died not merely to send a message but to complete a work, the result of which was salvation for those belonging to him.

We know that Jesus finished his work and accomplished his mission not only because he prayed in this way, but because the Father publicly declared his own satisfaction. I mentioned the satisfaction of a job well done: there has never been any satisfaction so infinitely great as the Father’s satisfaction in the covenant-fulfilling work of his divine Son. The proof of God’s satisfaction was Jesus’ resurrection from the dead. Paul writes that Jesus was therefore “declared to be the Son of God in power according to the Spirit of holiness by his resurrection from the dead” (Rom. 1:4). The apostle adds that Jesus “was delivered up for our trespasses and raised for our justification” (4:25). This means that “by the resurrection God gave notice that Christ’s death was that perfect substitution for sin he entered this world to make and that he, the Father, had accepted it in place of the condemnation of the sinner.” Since the Father has validated Jesus’ mission accomplishment, we rejoice in Paul’s declaration: “There is therefore now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus” (8:1).

Christ’s Work Glorified God

Not only was the Father satisfied by Jesus’ job fulfillment, but Christ was himself satisfied by what he had done. This is why he prays, “I glorified you on earth, having accomplished the work that you gave me to do” (John 17:4). As Isaiah had foretold: “Out of the anguish of his soul he shall see and be satisfied” (Isa. 53:11). Jesus saw that his achievement would save his beloved people while bringing glory to the Father.

It is evident that Jesus has two different kinds of glory in mind in this prayer. In verse 5 he speaks of the divine glory he had before creation, and in verse 4 Jesus speaks of the glory he achieved on earth. The idea of glory in the latter sense is well expressed by the Greek word doxa, which stems from the verb dokeo, meaning “to seem.” Paul uses this verb in Galatians 2:6 to speak of people who “seemed to be influential.” The noun form was used for what one thinks. We have it in our word orthodox, which connotes thinking correctly, and heterodox, which connotes thinking differently. Over time, the word doxa stood for something that was of good repute so as to be especially praiseworthy. In this sense, doxa was used in the Greek translations to speak of God’s glory. Psalm 24:10, for instance, states, “The Lord of hosts, he is the King of glory!” Today, we sing the Doxology, a hymn praising God’s glory.

In this sense, to glorify God is to display his praiseworthy qualities or attributes. This is, of course, what Jesus did in the world, showing in himself the glory of what God is like. Jesus’ life did not embrace worldly glory, but instead, through his life of humble obedience and ministry, Jesus displayed the infinitely praiseworthy character of God: his holiness, power, goodness, sovereignty, justice, truth, and mercy.

It would especially be in his self-sacrifice of the cross that Jesus would display the Father to the world. He began his prayer by asking the Father to enable him to do this: “Father, the hour has come; glorify your Son that the Son may glorify you” (John 17:1). On the cross, Jesus displayed the glory of God’s love and grace for sinners. At the same time, Jesus displayed as never before the perfect justice of God as the Father poured out the whole of his wrath upon sin, even when borne by his beloved Son. The cross displays the sovereignty of God as reams of biblical prophecy are brought into focus and fulfillment. In like manner, Jesus displayed the perfections of the glory of all the attributes of God when he bore the cross to free us from our sins.

Just as Jesus glorified the Father on the earth by completing the work given him to do, we, too, will glorify God by doing the work that he has given us to do. We glorify the Father by believing the gospel of the Son whom he has sent. We glorify God by pursuing lives of holiness in obedience to his Word. We display God’s glory by laboring together to build up the church and obey the Great Commission, making disciples of all kinds of people through our witness to the gospel. It is one thing to praise God with our lips, but quite another to praise God with our lives! J. C. Ryle comments: “To sing ‘Glory, glory,’ on a death-bed, after living an inconsistent life, is, to say the least, a proof that a man is a very ignorant Christian.”

Christ Was Glorified for His Work

Christ received a work from the Father, he completed the work, and he brought glory to the Father by his work. Finally, Jesus prays to be glorified for his work with the glory he had with the Father in eternity past: “And now, Father, glorify me in your own presence with the glory that I had with you before the world existed” (John 17:5).

Matthew Henry points out four truths grounded in this request. First, Jesus asserts his full deity, coequal and coeternal with the Father. This is the truth expressed in the opening lines of John’s Gospel: “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God” (John 1:1–2). Second, Christ was eternally full of glory, as was the Father. Henry writes: “He was from eternity the brightness of his Father’s glory.… Christ undertook the work of redemption, not because he needed glory, for he had a glory with the Father before the world, but because we needed glory.” Third, Jesus makes it clear that he divested himself of his outward glory in taking up a human nature. “He laid down this glory for a time, as a pledge that he would go through with this undertaking, according to the appointment of the Father.” Fourth, having performed and fulfilled God’s appointed work, Christ ascended into heaven and resumed his former outward glory, now glorified as both God and man. Henry urges us to seek after the glory of Christ rather than the tarnished glory of this world. “Let the same mind be in us,” he writes; “Lord, give the glories of this world to whom thou wilt give them, but let me have my portion of glory in the world to come.”

Jesus’ petition in verse 5 employs a second idea of glory. He speaks of a kind of glory that he temporarily laid down during his life on earth, even while he glorified the Father during his life and ministry. This second idea of glory is frequently seen in the Old Testament: glory as the radiance of the splendor of the light of God. Psalm 104:1–2 exclaims: “You are clothed with splendor and majesty, covering yourself with light as with a garment.” When Moses descended from meeting with God on Mount Sinai, the people asked him to cover his face because of the brightness of the glory reflected on it. When Solomon dedicated the temple on Mount Zion, the glory cloud “filled the house of the Lord” (1 Kings 8:10). In many Jewish writings, this glory was called the shekinah glory, the outshining of the brilliance of the light of God. It is this visible glory, the splendor of divine radiance, that Jesus prays to resume as the reward for fulfilling God’s work.

We know from the Bible that Jesus did take up this radiant glory upon his ascension into heaven. John himself would see it when Jesus appeared to him on the Isle of Patmos. In the book of Revelation, John tells us that he saw Jesus in glory,

clothed with a long robe and with a golden sash around his chest. The hairs of his head were white, like white wool, as white as snow. His eyes were like a flame of fire, his feet were like burnished bronze, refined in a furnace, and his voice was like the roar of many waters.… His face was like the sun shining in full strength.

When I saw him, I fell at his feet as though dead. But he laid his right hand on me, saying, “Fear not, I am the first and the last, and the living one. I died, and behold I am alive forevermore, and I have the keys of Death and Hades.” (Rev. 1:13–18)

This vision was given to encourage John and his friends in their great trials. It shows that Jesus has entered into the glory for which he prayed on the night of his arrest. He has ascended to the right hand of God, reigning with divine, sovereign power over heaven and earth (Matt. 28:18; Eph. 1:20–22). It is this glory of Christ that is heaven’s great song and the joy of Christ’s people forever: “Worthy are you …, for you were slain, and by your blood you ransomed people for God from every tribe and language and people and nation, and you have made them a kingdom and priests to our God, and they shall reign on the earth.… Worthy is the Lamb who was slain!” (Rev. 5:9–12).

Are We Satisfied?

In accomplishing the Father’s mission, Jesus was satisfied, and he asked to receive the glory promised to him as the Son of Man. God the Father was satisfied, declaring in the resurrection his acceptance of Christ’s saving work. The only remaining question is whether we are satisfied in the finished work of Jesus Christ. Are you looking for Jesus to do something more than living a perfect life on your behalf and shedding his life’s blood for your sins? Do you desire the lesser, fleeting glory of the world, sin, and the flesh? If you realize your urgent need to be forgiven of your sins and for a righteousness to stand in the presence of God’s glory, then you will be satisfied in the finished work of Christ. Realizing what Jesus has accomplished for us, we sing:

Jesus paid it all,

All to him I owe;

Sin had left a crimson stain,

He washed it white as snow.

If we realize that Jesus finished his work, that his mission is accomplished, then we will cease trying to do something more for our salvation. Our great need now is not to add our works to Christ’s finished work but for the glorious Christ to reign in us with his power. Seeing Jesus robed in the splendor of his heavenly glory becomes our hope and joy. We sing:

He ever lives above, for me to intercede,

His all-redeeming love, his precious blood to plead;

His blood atoned for ev’ry race, his blood atoned for ev’ry race,

And sprinkles now the throne of grace.

God is satisfied in Jesus and has glorified his Son in heaven. The only thing that he desires even more is for Jesus to be glorified in our hearts. This is the goal of our salvation, which we receive by believing in him, so that God would shine in our hearts “to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ” (2 Cor. 4:6).[3]


5 A second stage in revealing the glory of God will be the glorification of the Son when he returns to the place he enjoyed before the world began. The preexistence of the Son is clearly taught throughout the fourth gospel. John’s prologue begins with the assertion that “when all things began, the Word already was” (NEB). In 8:58 Jesus exclaimed, “Before Abraham was born, I am!” (see also 12:28 and Paul’s word in Php 2:6).

Jesus anticipates his return to the presence of the Father because it sets the stage for the outpouring of the Holy Spirit (16:7) and the founding and expansion of the early church (Ac 1:4; 2:1–4). It is by bringing men and women to faith in Jesus that the redemptive mission of the Son is carried out in time. When the church is obedient to its mandate to “go and make disciples of all nations” (Mt 28:19), glory and praise is brought to God.[4]


5 Now Jesus prays God to glorify him. He looks for glory in the last place that people would look for it, namely in the cross. And he sees this glory for which he prays as linked with his preincarnate glory with the Father.22 There is a clear assertion of Christ’s pre-existence here (we have already seen such a claim, 1:1; 8:58; 16:28). There is also the claim that he had enjoyed a unique glory with the Father in that preexistent state. And now, as evil men are about to do their worst to him, he looks for the Father to glorify him again in the same way.24 It is the Father who will glorify him with true glory in the cross, and in what follows. Paul tells us that Christ “was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father” (Rom. 6:4). In the passion and all that was associated with it Jesus would be glorified with the true glory, a glory continuous with, and indeed identical with, the glory he had “before the world began.” For “the world” see Additional Note B, pp. 111–13. The noun occurs eighteen times in this prayer, which is considerably more than in any section of comparable length anywhere else in this Gospel. Clearly the right relationship of the disciples to the world was of great moment to our Lord as he contemplated leaving them.[5]


4–5 Jesus now reverses the order of his opening petition (“Glorify your Son, so that the Son might glorify you,” v. 1) in such a way that the Son’s glorification of the Father comes first: “I glorified you on the earth. … And now you, Father, glorify me in your own presence, with the glory I had in your presence before the world was” (vv. 4–5, italics added). More specifically, he has glorified the Father on earth by “having completed the work12 you have given me that I should do” (v. 4). Long before, and in a very different setting, he has said, “My food is that I might do the will of the One who sent me and complete his work” (4:34). The nature of that “work” he will spell out shortly (vv. 6–8), but for the moment he mentions it only briefly, as the basis for the twin petitions, “Glorify your Son” (v. 1) and “glorify me in your own presence” (v. 5). The result is a kind of chiasm:

a    “Glorify your Son” (v. 1a)

b    “So that the Son might glorify you” (v. 1b)

b′   “I have glorified you” (v. 4)

a′   “And now glorify me” (v. 5)

Jesus is asking the Father for “glorification” (a and a′) on the basis of having glorified the Father already on earth (b′), and with the promise of continuing to do so (b). This continuing glorification of the Father by the Son is probably best understood as the continuing gift of eternal life to all those whom the Father has given him (see v. 2), with life understood as knowledge of “the only True God” (v. 3). This will take place through the testimony of the Advocate among those who are disciples already, and in the end through the written Gospel itself (see 20:31).

The “glory” for which Jesus is asking is here defined as “the glory that I had in your presence before the world was” (v. 5). This is consistent with the notion that this “glory” is understood as the Son’s reunion with the Father, but more specifically it revisits the Gospel’s opening affirmation that “the Word was with God, and the Word was God” (1:1). While the allusion to the Gospel’s beginning is indirect rather than direct, the reader is expected to know that Jesus was “with God in the beginning” (1:2), and that he shared in the Father’s glory (see 1:14b). He alluded occasionally to his preexistence, in such expressions as “I came down from heaven” (6:38), or “[what] if you see the Son of man going up where he was at first?” (6:62), or “The things I have seen in the Father’s presence I speak” (8:38), or “before Abraham came to be, I am” (8:58). But more often he spoke ambiguously of having “come into the world,” or being “sent” from the Father, expressions consistent with preexistence while not quite demanding it (see 1:6, where John too is a man “sent from God”). Jesus’ language here in prayer to the Father, accenting where he came from and where he is going, recalls his “plain” revelation to the disciples just a few verses earlier, “I came forth from the Father, and I have come into the world. Again, I am leaving the world and going off to the Father” (16:28). Turning his face now toward the Father, he asks that his journey back to the Father might begin. At the same time, the disciples are very much on his mind (see vv. 2–3), and the future glorification for which Jesus prays is, as we will see (v. 24), as much for their sakes as for his.[6]


It is about future glory (v. 5)

Before coming to this world of ours and sharing our humanity, Jesus fully experienced the glory that was his by right as God’s eternal Son. But in taking our humanity, that glory was veiled. On the Mount of Transfiguration it peeped through briefly, but when Jesus ascended to his Father forty days after his resurrection, he was once again fully revealed in all his glory. But have you realized that something had changed? When Jesus returned to his Father’s presence it was with a glorified body—a body he did not possess before his incarnation. And today, in that glorified body he is as fully revealed as God’s one and only precious Son as he was before the world began. Little wonder that John struggles to find appropriate words when he is given a sight of the glorified Saviour in heaven in Revelation 1:12–18.[7]


5. And now—in return.

glorify thou me—The “I Thee” and “Thou Me” are so placed in the original, each beside its fellow, as to show that a perfect reciprocity of services of the Son to the Father first, and then of the Father to the Son in return, is what our Lord means here to express.

with the glory which I had with thee before the world was—when “in the beginning the Word was with God” (Jn 1:1), “the only-begotten Son in the bosom of the Father” (Jn 1:18). With this pre-existent glory, which He veiled on earth, He asks to be reinvested, the design of the veiling being accomplished—not, however, simply as before, but now in our nature.[8]


Ver. 5.—And now (νῦν)—the very point of time has come—glorify thou me, O Father, explaining the opening of the prayer, “Glorify thy Son.” He identifies his own Personality—“me”—with that of “the Son,” and “thy Son.” With thy own self (παρὰ σεαυτῷ); in closest connection and fellowship with thyself—a relation which has been arrested or suspended since I have been “Jesus Christ,” and glorifying thee amid the toil and sorrow of this earthly pilgrimage. This immediate glorification of the Son embraces the glory of vicarious death, the triumphant resurrection, the mystery of ascension in the strength of his human memories to the right hand of God (ch. 13:31, 32). He still further defines this wondrous prospect, as with the glory which I had with thee before the world was—before the being of the κόσμος παρὰ σεαντῷ … παρὰ σοι. Παρὰ in John represents local relationships (see ch. 1:40; 4:40; 14:25; Rev. 2:13) or intimate spiritual associations (ch. 14:23). So our Lord remembers and anticipates a “glory with the Father.” That which he refers to as before the existence of the world has been softened down by Grotius, Weltstein, Schleiermacher, and some moderns to mean the glory of the Divine thought and destination concerning him; but the expression παρὰ σοι is far from being exhausted by such a rendering. He who wrote the prologue (ch. 1:2, 18) meant that, as the Logos had been πρὸς τὸν Θέον and εἰς τὸν κόλπον τοῦ Πατρός, and at a special epoch “became flesh,” the beamings forth of his glory on earth were those which belonged to human life, to the form of a servant, and were profoundly different from that μορφὴ Θεοῦ in which his innermost self-consciousness, the centre of his Personality, originally dwelt. And now he seeks to carry this new appanage of his Sonship, this God-glorifying humanity, up into the glory of the pre-existent majesty (cf. Phil. 2:9; 1 Tim. 3:16; Heb. 1:8, 13). The δόξα which was visible to the disciples on earth (ch. 1:14) was glory limited, coloured, conditioned, by human life and death; but so complete was the Lord’s union with the Logos, that it did not quench his memory of the glory of his omnipresent, eternal Being, nor his remembrance of absolute coexistence with the Father before all worlds. He would lift humanity to the very throne of God by its union with his Person. This stupendous claim both as to the past and future would be utterly bewildering if it stood alone; but the Old Testament has prepared the mind of the disciples for this great mystery (Prov. 8.; Isa. 6.). The theophanies generally, and ch. 8:25 and Heb. 1, with numerous other passages, sustain and corroborate the conception that the Logos of God was throughout all human history on the verge of manifestation in the flesh. The record of the extraordinary God-consciousness of Jesus does transcend all human experience, and baffles us at every turn; but the human consciousness of Jesus appears gradually to have come into such communion with the Logos who had become flesh in him, that he thought the veritable thoughts and felt the emotions of the eternal God as though they were absolutely his own. In addition to this idea of his resumption of his own eternal state, Lange and Moulton, in opposition to Meyer, lay emphasis on the answer to this prayer, consisting in such a manifestation of the premundane glory in his flesh, that it should perfectly establish the relation between the glory of the Father before all worlds, and the glory of utter and complete self-sacrifice for the redemption of the world. The glory of omnipotence and omnipresence is lost in the greater glory of infinite love. Thus the glory which he had with the Father would be best seen in the completion of his agony, the τετέλεσται of the cross.[9]


5 The prayer for glory, accordingly, is for a restoration of that which the Son enjoyed with the Father prior to creation (cf. 1:1–5). Haenchen points out that this prayer assumes that the incarnation entailed a forfeiture of the glory that the Son once possessed; it calls into question therefore Käsemann’s contention that the Evangelist’s representation of the glory of Jesus in his ministry undermines the reality of the incarnation, and made of Jesus a “god walking about the earth” (see Käsemann’s Testament of Jesus, 8–26, and Haenchen, 502). Perhaps we should heed Schnackenburg’s observation, that the glory of Jesus “before the world was made” characterizes not the pre-mundane but the supra-mundane existence of the Logos, and therefore ultimately the superiority of the Revealer to and his transcendence over the world (3:174). Such an interpretation of the Son in relation to the Father in no way cancels out the fundamental utterance of 1:14, “The Word became flesh.”[10]


5. And now Father, glorify thou me in thine own presence with the glory which I had with thee before the world existed.

Here the thought of verse 2 is resumed. Jesus is again requesting that the Father glorify him. This time he is thinking especially of the reward upon his mediatorial work. He yearns to go home to his Father. The erstwhile glory which had been his delight before the foundation of the world (orderly universe; see Vol. I, p. 79, footnote , meaning 1) had never been absent from his mind. Throughout his ministry of suffering he, the Man of Sorrows, longed to regain that which he, in the interest of sinners, had voluntarily surrendered (the serene enjoyment of the Father’s presence, unmixed with suffering; cf. Phil. 2:7). “To return again to the very presence of the Father so as to be face to face with him” is what he now requests. See on 1:1. In this connection Heb. 12:2 immediately occurs to the mind: “For the joy that was set before him he endured the cross.” The meaning is that he endured the cross in order that he might exchange it for the crown. For the meaning of the preposition παρά in the phrase “in thine own presence” see on 14:23, footnote . It is hardly necessary to add that in this yearning for future glory (17:5) or for future joy (Heb. 12:2) there was not even a trace of vulgar selfishness (cf. 17:1). To be sure, whatever God does he does for his own glory, and Jesus is God! Even in his mediatorial capacity it is the divine person who is speaking his words and performing his deeds. Nevertheless, when we remember that “God is love,” that (according to the Fourth Gospel) the persons in the Holy Trinity glorify one another, and that the glory and the joy of the exalted Mediator includes also this element that “he ever lives to make intercession for those who draw near unto God through him” (Heb. 7:25), the problem has been solved. Here in 17:5 the Son is looking forward to the glory of rejoicing in the joy of his saved people, the very people whose salvation he (together with the Father and the Spirit) had planned from eternity, before the world existed. God ever delights in his own works. The Son glories in the Father’s glory, and rejoices in the joy of all the redeemed. When they sing, he sings! (cf. Zeph. 3:17).[11]


[1] MacArthur, J. F., Jr. (2008). John 12–21 (pp. 254–256). Chicago, IL: Moody Publishers.

[2] Calvin, J., & Pringle, W. (2010). Commentary on the Gospel according to John (Vol. 2, p. 169). Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software.

[3] Phillips, R. D. (2014). John. (R. D. Phillips, P. G. Ryken, & D. M. Doriani, Eds.) (1st ed., Vol. 2, pp. 405–415). Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishing.

[4] Mounce, R. H. (2007). John. In T. Longman III & D. E. Garland (Eds.), The Expositor’s Bible Commentary: Luke–Acts (Revised Edition) (Vol. 10, p. 599). Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

[5] Morris, L. (1995). The Gospel according to John (p. 639). Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.

[6] Michaels, J. R. (2010). The Gospel of John (pp. 860–862). Grand Rapids, MI; Cambridge, UK: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.

[7] Paterson, A. (2010). Opening Up John’s Gospel (pp. 141–142). Leominster: Day One Publications.

[8] Jamieson, R., Fausset, A. R., & Brown, D. (1997). Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible (Vol. 2, p. 159). Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.

[9] Spence-Jones, H. D. M. (Ed.). (1909). St. John (Vol. 2, pp. 343–344). London; New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company.

[10] Beasley-Murray, G. R. (1999). John (Vol. 36, pp. 297–298). Dallas: Word, Incorporated.

[11] Hendriksen, W., & Kistemaker, S. J. (1953–2001). Exposition of the Gospel According to John (Vol. 2, pp. 351–352). Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.