15. The Prophet inculcates the same truth; and he did this designedly; for he saw that nothing was more difficult than to bring this people to repentance, who, in the first place, were by nature refractory; and, in the second place, were hardened by long habit in their vices. For Satan gains dominion by degrees in the hearts of men, until he renders them wholly stupid, so that they discern not between right and wrong. Such, then, was the blindness which prevailed among the people of Israel: it was therefore necessary often to goad them as Amos does here.
Hence he bids them to hate evil and to love good. And this order ought to be preserved, when we desire really to turn to God and to repent. Amos here addresses perverse men, who were so immersed in their own wickedness, that they distinguished no longer between light and darkness: it was therefore not without reason that he begins with this sentence, that they should hate evil; as though he had said, that there had been hitherto a hostile disagreement between them and God, and that therefore a change was necessary, in order that they might return to him. For when any one has already wished to devote himself to God’s service, this exhortation to hate evil is superfluous: but when one is sunk still in his own vices, he has need of such a stimulant. The Prophet therefore does here reprove them; and though they flattered themselves, he yet shows that they were greatly addicted to their vices.
He afterwards adds, Love good. He intimates, that it would be a new thing for them to cultivate benevolence, and to apply themselves to what was right. The import of the whole is this,—that the Israelites would have no peace with God, until they were wholly changed and became new men; for they were now strangers to goodness, and given to wickedness and depravity. But Amos mentions here only a part of repentance: for טוב, thub, no doubt means the doing of good, as iniquity is properly called רע, ro, [the doing of evil.] He speaks not here of faith, or of prayer to God, but describes repentance by its fruits; for our faith, as it has been stated in other places, is proved in this way; it manifests itself, when sincerity and uprightness towards one another flourish in us, when we spontaneously love one another and perform the duties of love. Thus then by stating a part for the whole, is repentance here described; that is, the whole, as they commonly say, is shown by a part.
But now the Prophet adds, And set up judgment in the gate. He here glances at the public state of things, of which we have largely spoken in our yesterday’s lecture. A deluge of iniquity had so inundated the land, that in the very courts of justice, and in the passing of judgments, there was no longer any equity, any justice. Since then corruption had taken possession of the very gates, the Prophet exhorts them to set up judgment in the gate; it may be, he says, that God will show mercy to the remnants of Joseph. The Prophet shows here that it was hardly possible that the people should continue safe; nay, that this was altogether hopeless. But as the common degeneracy, like a violent tempest, carried away the good along with it, the Prophet here admonishes the faithful not to despond, though they were few in number, but to betake themselves to God, to suffer others to fall away and to run headlong to ruin, and at the same time to provide for their own safety, as those who flee away from the burning.
We now then understand the object of the Prophet: for when the whole multitude, given up to destruction, had laid aside every care for their safety, a few remained, who yet suffered themselves to be borne along, as though a tempest, as it has been said, had carried them away. The Prophet then does here give comfort to such good men as were still alive, and shows that though the people were sinking, there was no reason for them to despair, for the Lord still promised to be propitious to them. What this doctrine teaches is this,—that ten ought not to regard what a thousand may do; but they ought to hear God speaking, rather than to abandon themselves with the multitude; when they see men blindly and impetuously running headlong to their own ruin, they should not follow them, but rather listen to God, and not reject his offered salvation. However much then their small number may dishearten them, they ought not yet to suffer God’s promises to be forced or snatched away from them, but fully to embrace them.
The expression, it may be, is not one of doubt, as it has been stated in another place, (Joel 2,) but the Prophet, on the contrary, intended sharply to stimulate the faithful, that he might, as it was needful, increase their alacrity. Whenever then פן, pen, lest perhaps, or אולי, auli, it may be, is set down, let us know, that they are not intended to leave men’s minds in suspense or perplexity, that they may despond or come to God in doubt; but that a difficulty is thereby implied, in order to stir them up and to increase the ardour of their desire: and this is necessary in a mixed state of things, for we see how great is the indolence of our flesh. Even they who desire to return to God, do not hasten with that ardour which becomes them, but creep slowly, and hardly draw themselves along; and then when many obstacles meet them, they who would have been otherwise full of courage, almost despair at every step. It is therefore necessary to apply such goadings as these, “Take heed; for when any one is beset on every side by fire, he will not long delay, nor think with himself how he may escape without any hurt and without any inconvenience; but he will risk danger rather than that he should by delay or tardiness deprive himself of a way of escape. So also ye see, that iniquity surrounds you on every side; what then is to be done, except that each of you must quickly flee away?”
We now then perceive the design of the Prophet in saying, It may be that he will show mercy. The sum of the whole is this,—That there was need of a great change, that they might become altogether new men, who had hitherto devoted themselves to wickedness,—and then, that the few should not wait until the whole multitude joined them; for though the people resolved to go astray, yet God ought to have been attended to, when recalling the few to himself and bidding them to escape, as it were, from the burning,—and, thirdly, that there is stated here a difficulty, that those still healable might not come tardily to God, but that they might strive against impediments and quickly run to him, seeing that they could not without great effort extricate themselves; they were therefore to come to God, not slowly; but having overcome all difficulties, they were, on the contrary, to flee to him.
15 The people are not only to stop seeking evil (v. 14) but are also to “hate evil [and] love good.” The imperatives in this section are progressive. The people are exhorted to seek the Lord (v. 4), not just in external allegiance to him but also in ethical obedience that involves commitment to him (v. 14). The will, along with the emotive powers, is to be devoted to the love of good and the hatred of evil. Only this kind of devotion will bring “life.” If the people fulfill these conditions, it is possible that the Lord will “have mercy on the remnant of Joseph” (see comment on v. 6).
Because the term “remnant” (šeʾērît) connotes a portion of something, several commentators have applied “the remnant of Joseph” to those Israelites who will survive the Assyrian decimations (K&D, Mays). Verse 3 certainly supports that interpretation. Yet if Amos’s exhortation in v. 14 holds open the possibility of the nation’s restoration based on their repentance, it is difficult to see why the similar appeal in v. 15 is thrust far into the future to find fulfillment only in the remnant who will survive the impending destruction. If Amos’s appeal to the northern kingdom for repentance in v. 6 carries with it the possibility of escape from God’s judgment, it is likely that the appeal of v. 15 does also.
God’s people through whom the terms of the promise are guaranteed are hardly the “remnant,” for the word “perhaps” implies that God’s promise can be invalidated. If the term “remnant of Joseph” is understood as a surrogate for the northern kingdom, the appeals of vv. 14–15 are consonant with each other.
One difficulty with this view is that Israel had extensive territorial holdings and was hardly a remnant. Also, “remnant” implies a part of something. Yet in spite of the fact that the northern kingdom was enjoying the glory of the “Silver Age,” Amos sees it as small and weak. He intercedes for the kingdom in 7:2 thus: “How can Jacob survive? He is so small!” The prophet sees Israel as God sees it—not mighty and powerful, but vulnerable and on the verge of destruction. “Remnant” may connote Israel’s insignificance in the world of her day. In answer to the objection that the word connotes a part of something, Micah 4:7 uses it to refer to the whole nation in the restoration. It is parallel to “strong nation” in that couplet.
If these appeals for repentance seem not to be in accord with Amos’s pronouncements of inevitable doom elsewhere, it may be that while he sees no hope for the nation, he continues to hold out the gracious offer of deliverance, even though only a few will respond.
5:15 will be gracious to The prophets preached repentance in the hope that there was still a chance to avert divine wrath. See note on Joel 2:12.
the remnant of Joseph Those who remain from the northern kingdom after the judgment. See note on Isa 1:9.
 Calvin, J., & Owen, J. (2010). Commentaries on the Twelve Minor Prophets (Vol. 2, pp. 275–278). Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software.
 McComiskey, T. E., & Longman, T., III. (2008). Amos. In D. E. Garland (Ed.), The Expositor’s Bible Commentary: Daniel–Malachi (Revised Edition) (Vol. 8, pp. 398–399). Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.
 Barry, J. D., Mangum, D., Brown, D. R., Heiser, M. S., Custis, M., Ritzema, E., … Bomar, D. (2012, 2016). Faithlife Study Bible (Am 5:15). Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press.