7 The Hebrew for maintain is the Hiphil stem of the verb qûm, “to raise, erect, establish.” The Hiphil of this verb allows a range of meanings from “establish” to “fulfill.” This covenant with Abraham is something God initiates, something he maintains, and something he brings to fulfillment.
No less than three times in this chapter (vv. 7, 13, 19) we are told that God’s covenant with Abraham was an eternal one, and one time (v. 8) that Canaan was to be the permanent possession of Abraham’s descendants. W. Kaiser well points out that “the word ʿôlām must add something more to the noun it went with, for in the case of covenant there was already a strong idea of perpetuity.”
It may be no accident that the word eternal is present in ch. 17 but absent in ch. 15. Is it not interesting that in the chapter where at least four covenant stipulations are placed before Abraham—walk before me; be blameless; keep my covenant; circumcise yourselves—the covenant should be thrice described as an eternal one? This repetition of eternal emphasizes that God’s covenant with Abraham has not suddenly shifted away from the unilateral emphasis of ch. 15 to a bilateral pact here in ch. 17. To be sure, God has expectations concerning Abraham’s behavior, but these do not become grounds for the establishment and authentication of God’s covenant with Abraham. Rather, the covenant remains a personal commitment by God in which he binds himself to this open-ended promise to Abraham.
17:7 The Abrahamic covenant (12:1–3) is the foundation upon which all later divine covenants with God’s people are based. Everlasting means the covenant would last through all time. to be God to you: With these remarkable words, God pledged His ongoing relationship with the people of Abraham (2 Sam. 7:14; Is. 52:11; Ezek. 37:26, 27; 2 Cor. 6:14–7:1). This was later celebrated in the creed of Israel, the great Shema (Deut. 6:4; Ps. 100:3). Descendants is from the Hebrew word for seed; it may mean an individual person as well as a people (3:15; 15:3, 5, 13, 18).
17:7 I will establish My covenant. This relationship was set up at God’s initiative and also designated as an “everlasting covenant” (v. 7), thus applying to Abraham’s posterity with equal force and bringing forth the declaration “I will be their God” (v. 8). This pledge became the dictum of the covenant relationship between Yahweh, i.e., Jehovah, and Israel.
17:7 for an everlasting covenant. The covenant will be ongoing in nature, extending from one generation to the next.
17:7 your offspring after you The descendants of Abraham are commanded to keep the covenant, which is explained in the next verse as the rite of circumcision. The covenant and its sign (and so, the observance of the rite) was to be everlasting (Gen 17:13).
an everlasting covenant The phrase appears three times in this passage (vv. 7, 13, 19). See note on 9:16.
17:7 your offspring. The descendants of Abraham through the child of promise, Isaac (Rom. 4:19; 9:6–9). Gentile believers participate in this covenant promise through spiritual incorporation into Israel (Eph. 2:11–13; 1 Pet. 2:10 note) by union with Christ, the great offspring of Abraham (Gal. 3:16, 26–29).
everlasting. The unilateral and gracious nature of God’s covenant with Abraham is underscored by its eternal character (v. 2 note). God’s covenant endures forever because He does not change and Jesus Christ fulfills every condition (2 Cor. 1:20; Eph. 2:12, 13).
to be God to you. Although there is a legal dimension to the covenant (v. 2 note), God’s covenant relationship with His people is first and foremost one of divine-human communion and fellowship (Ex. 6:7; Deut. 29:13). God graciously dwells with His people, and they gratefully respond in faith, love, and obedience.
7. And thy seed after thee. There is no doubt that the Lord distinguishes the race of Abraham from the rest of the world. We must now see what people he intends. Now they are deceived who think that his elect alone are here pointed out; and that all the faithful are indiscriminately comprehended, from whatever people, according to the flesh, they are descended. For, on the contrary, the Scripture declares that the race of Abraham, by lineal descent, had been peculiarly accepted by God. And it is the evident doctrine of Paul concerning the natural descendants of Abraham, that they are holy branches which have proceeded from a holy root, (Rom. 11:16.) And lest any one should restrict this assertion to the shadows of the law, or should evade it by allegory, he elsewhere expressly declares, that Christ came to be a minister of the circumcision, (Rom. 15:8.) Wherefore, nothing is more certain, than that God made his covenant with those sons of Abraham who were naturally to be born of him. If any one object, that this opinion by no means agrees with the former, in which we said that they are reckoned the children of Abraham, who being by faith ingrafted into his body, form one family; the difference is easily reconciled, by laying down certain distinct degrees of adoption, which may be collected from various passages of Scripture. In the beginning, antecedently to this covenant, the condition of the whole world was one and the same. But as soon as it was said, ‘I will be a God to thee and to thy seed after thee,’ the Church was separated from other nations; just as in the creation of the world, the light emerged out of the darkness. Then the people of Israel was received, as the flock of God, into their own fold: the other nations wandered, like wild beasts, through mountains, woods, and deserts. Since this dignity, in which the sons of Abraham excelled other nations, depended on the word of God alone, the gratuitous adoption of God belongs to them all in common. For if Paul deprives the Gentiles of God and of eternal life, on the ground of their being aliens from the covenant, (Eph. 4:18,) it follows that all Israelites were of the household of the Church, and sons of God, and heirs of eternal life. And although it was by the grace of God, and not by nature, that they excelled the Gentiles; and although the inheritance of the kingdom of God came to them by promise, and not by carnal descent; yet they are sometimes said to differ by nature from the rest of the world. In the Epistle to the Galatians, chap. 2 ver. 15, and elsewhere, Paul calls them saints ‘by nature,’ because God was willing that his grace should descend, by a continual succession, to the whole seed. In this sense, they who were unbelievers among the Jews, are yet called the children of the celestial kingdom, by Christ. (Matth. 8:12.) Nor does what St Paul says contradict this; namely, that not all who are from Abraham are to be esteemed legitimate children; because they are not the children of the promise, but only of the flesh. (Rom. 9:8.) For there, the promise is not taken generally for that outward word, by which God conferred his favour as well upon the reprobate as upon the elect; but must be restricted to that efficacious calling, which he inwardly seals by his Spirit. And that this is the case, is proved without difficulty; for the promise by which the Lord had adopted them all as children, was common to all: and in that promise, it cannot be denied, that eternal salvation was offered to all. What, therefore, can be the meaning of Paul, when he denies that certain persons have any right to be reckoned among children, except that he is no longer reasoning about the externally offered grace, but about that of which only the elect effectually partake? Here, then, a twofold class of sons presents itself to us, in the Church; for since the whole body of the people is gathered together into the fold of God, by one and the same voice, all without exception, are, in this respect, accounted children; the name of the Church is applicable in common to them all: but in the innermost sanctuary of God, none others are reckoned the sons of God, than they in whom the promise is ratified by faith. And although this difference flows from the fountain of gratuitous election, whence also faith itself springs; yet, since the counsel of God is in itself hidden from us, we therefore distinguish the true from the spurious children, by the respective marks of faith and of unbelief. This method and dispensation continued even to the promulgation of the gospel; but then the middle wall was broken down, (Ephes. 2:14,) and God made the Gentiles equal to the natural descendants of Abraham. That was the renovation of the world, by which they, who had before been strangers, began to be called sons. Yet whenever a comparison is made between Jews and Gentiles, the inheritance of life is assigned to the former, as lawfully belonging to them; but to the latter, it is said to be adventitious. Meanwhile, the oracle was fulfilled, in which God promises that Abraham should be the father of many nations. For whereas previously, the natural sons of Abraham were succeeded by their descendants in continual succession, and the benediction, which began with him, flowed down to his children; the coming of Christ, by inverting the original order, introduced into his family those who before were separated from his seed: at length the Jews were cast out, (except that a hidden seed of the election remained among them,) in order that the rest might be saved. It was necessary that these things concerning the seed of Abraham should once be stated, that they may open to us an easy introduction to what follows.
In their generations. This succession of generations clearly proves that the posterity of Abraham were taken into the Church, in such a manner that sons might be born to them, who should be heirs of the same grace. In this way the covenant is called perpetual, as lasting until the renovation of the world; which took place at the advent of Christ. I grant, indeed, that the covenant was without end, and may with propriety be called eternal, as far as the whole Church is concerned; it must, however, always remain as a settled point, that the regular succession of ages was partly broken and partly changed, by the coming of Christ, because the middle wall being broken down, and the sons by nature being, at length, disinherited, Abraham began to have a race associated with himself, from all regions of the world.
To be a God unto thee. In this single word we are plainly taught, that this was a spiritual covenant, not confirmed in reference to the present life only; but one from which Abraham might conceive the hope of eternal salvation, so that being raised even to heaven, he might lay hold of solid and perfect bliss. For those whom God adopts to himself, from among a people—seeing that he makes them partakers of his righteousness and of all good things—he also constitutes heirs of celestial life. Let us then mark this as the principal part of the covenant, that He who is the God of the living, not of the dead, promises to be a God to the children of Abraham. It follows afterwards, in the way of augmentation of the grant, that he promises to give them the land. I confess, indeed, that something greater and more excellent than itself was shadowed forth by the land of Canaan; yet this is not at variance with the statement, that the promise now made was an accession to that primary one, ‘I will be thy God.’ Now, although God again affirms, as before, that He will give the land to Abraham himself, we nevertheless know, that Abraham never possessed dominion over it; but the holy man was contented with his title to it alone, although the possession of it was not granted him; and, therefore, he calmly passed from his earthly pilgrimage into heaven. God again repeats that He will be a God to the posterity of Abraham, in order that they may not settle upon earth, but may regard themselves as trained for higher things.
Ver. 7.—And I will establish my covenant between me and thee and thy seed after thee in their generations for an everlasting covenant,—literally, for a covenant of eternity (vide ch. 9:16)—to be a God unto thee, and to thy seed after thee. Literally, to be for Elohim; a formula comprehending all saving benefits; a clear indication of the spiritual character of the Abrahamic covenant (cf. ch. 26:24; 28:13; Heb. 11:16).
7 The Lord now adds to the great promise of kingship what are seen in the OT as even more valuable blessings. The covenant is not to be just between God and Abraham but between God and Abraham’s descendants after him. Hitherto he has been promised descendants (13:16) and the land has been promised to them (13:15), but this is the first occasion that the covenant is extended to include Abraham’s seed. This makes the covenant with Abraham like the Noahic covenant, as do the phrases “I shall confirm my covenant … for an eternal covenant” (9:9, 11, 16). Though the land had been promised in perpetuity (13:15), this is the first time that the Abrahamic covenant has been described as “eternal” or that the covenant formula היה לך לאלהים “to be your God” has appeared. This latter phrase, used twice here and not again till 28:21, expresses the heart of the covenant, that God has chosen Abraham and his descendants, so that they are in a unique relationship: he is their God, and they are his people (cf. Exod 4:16; 6:7; Lev 11:45; 26:12, 45).
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