Conflict with Others
What is the source of quarrels and conflicts among you? (4:1a)
The Greek text of this sentence has no verb, and reads more literally, “Whence quarrels and whence conflicts among you?” Polemos (quarrels), from which we get the English “polemics,” relates to general, prolonged, and serious disputing or combat and is often rendered “war” (e.g., Matt. 24:6; Heb. 11:34; Rev. 11:7; 16:14). Conflicts translates machē, which refers to a specific fight or battle. Both terms are used here metaphorically of violent personal relationships, which, in the extreme, can result even in murder (v. 2).
Among you indicates that these combative relationships were between members of the churches to whom James wrote. As will be discussed under verse 4, some of those members obviously were not saved. And because they were thereby enemies of God, they were also enemies of each other and of true believers within the churches.
A pastor friend once told me he had discovered that the root cause of his quarreling, wrangling church board was that half of the men were saved and half were not. In such a situation, conflict is inevitable.
Paul understood this when he wrote:
Do not be bound together with unbelievers; for what partnership have righteousness and lawlessness, or what fellowship has light with darkness? Or what harmony has Christ with Belial, or what has a believer in common with an unbeliever? Or what agreement has the temple of God with idols? For we are the temple of the living God; just as God said, “I will dwell in them and walk among them; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people. Therefore, come out from their midst and be separate,” says the Lord. “And do not touch what is unclean; and I will welcome you. And I will be a father to you, and you shall be sons and daughters to Me,” says the Lord Almighty. (2 Cor. 6:14–18)
Sometimes making such separation is difficult, since the separation of the wheat and tares can be done only by the Lord (Matt. 13:24–30, 36–43).
But conflict within the church is not in God’s will or design. Jesus said to the disciples, “A new commandment I give to you, that you love one another, even as I have loved you, that you also love one another. By this all men will know that you are My disciples, if you have love for one another” (John 13:34–35), and later in His high priestly prayer He entreated His Father that believers “may all be one; even as You, Father, are in Me and I in You, that they also may be in Us, so that the world may believe that You sent Me” (17:21). After Pentecost, “the congregation of those who believed were of one heart and soul; and not one of them claimed that anything belonging to him was his own, but all things were common property to them” (Acts 4:32). Paul exhorted factious church members in Corinth, “by the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that you all agree and that there be no divisions among you, but that you be made complete in the same mind and in the same judgment” (1 Cor. 1:10), and called on believers in Philippi to “conduct yourselves in a manner worthy of the gospel of Christ, so that whether I come and see you or remain absent, I will hear of you that you are standing firm in one spirit, with one mind striving together for the faith of the gospel” (Phil. 1:27; cf. 2:1–4).
Just as in the church since, conflict was a frequent problem in the early church. After giving Corinthian believers the exhortation just mentioned above, Paul later scolded them, saying, “I, brethren, could not speak to you as to spiritual men, but as to men of flesh, as to infants in Christ. I gave you milk to drink, not solid food; for you were not yet able to receive it. Indeed, even now you are not yet able, for you are still fleshly. For since there is jealousy and strife among you, are you not fleshly, and are you not walking like mere men?” (1 Cor. 3:1–3). Still later, he wrote them, “For I am afraid that perhaps when I come I may find you to be not what I wish and may be found by you to be not what you wish; that perhaps there will be strife, jealousy, angry tempers, disputes, slanders, gossip, arrogance, disturbances” (2 Cor. 12:20).
Paul admonished Titus to tell believers under his care to remember their former lives apart from God:
Remind them to be subject to rulers, to authorities, to be obedient, to be ready for every good deed, to malign no one, to be peaceable, gentle, showing every consideration for all men. For we also once were foolish ourselves, disobedient, deceived, enslaved to various lusts and pleasures, spending our life in malice and envy, hateful, hating one another. (Titus 3:1–3)
Such normal conflict among the unconverted sadly finds its way into the church.
1 As with 3:13, James begins with a rhetorical question, and puts its answer also in the form of a question: “What causes fights and quarrels among you? Don’t they come from your desires that battle within you?” The double use of pothen (“from where?”) signals impassioned preaching at this point (Davids, 156). The term for “fights” (polemos, GK 4483) could refer to literal wars or battles (e.g., Mt 24:6; Lk 14:31), but it also had a figurative meaning, as it does here, that spoke of relational antagonism or conflict. “Quarrels” (machē, GK 3480) is roughly synonymous to the previous term, although machē can connote disputes or arguments (2 Co 7:5; 2 Ti 2:23; Tit 3:9), and this repetition of similar ideas may indicate a high level of intensity in the situation. The word for “not” (ouk) at the beginning of the second sentence anticipates a positive answer. Thus the rhetorical question implies that fighting and quarreling characterize the communities being addressed, so the question provides us a clarifying peek at the relational discord that seems to be an underlying concern of the book (Ropes, 252). The fragmentation of these communities had reached serious levels, and James confronts the discord quite directly and forcefully.
He answers his own question by pinpointing their “desires” (hēdonē, GK 2454), or “pleasures,” as the stimulating factor behind the infighting among these believers. Although the term could be used in the ancient world to speak of enjoyment or pleasantness, here, as elsewhere in the NT, it refers to evil pleasures that have a negative spiritual effect (Lk 8:14; Tit 3:3; 2 Pe 2:13). In fact, the “fights” and “quarrels” in the churches are symptomatic of a deeper condition, since the internal conflicting desires resident in each person are in a state of “battle” (strateuō, GK 5129). The word translated “battle” could mean “to serve as a soldier” (1 Co 9:7; 2 Ti 2:4) but here refers figuratively to some type of fight or conflict (cf. 2 Co 10:3; 1 Ti 1:18; 1 Pe 2:11). Thus the phrase translated “within you” (NIV), or “in your members” (NASB), refers to the evil desires inside these people rather than merely desires played out in conflicted community relationships (Laws, 168; Davids, 157).
1 Having declared at the end of ch. 3 that true wisdom is peace, and false wisdom, strife, James naturally begins ch. 4 with some remarks on the genesis of strife: it springs, he says, from our lusts. We fight, we even pray, for the means of gratifying those lusts: no wonder those prayers are not answered. The twofold “whence … whence” in the Greek without the customary “brothers” (see v. 13) reveals the intensity of his feeling, as does the duplication in wars and fightings, one broader and the other narrower in meaning without any sharp distinction here, like our “trouble and strife” (Ger. Streit und Hader), and in the regular sense of the plural fightings, i.e., of battles fought without actual weapons—fightings, quarrels, strife, disputes in church and society. In later Greek “fightings” was used of philosophical contests and in disputes about words (Prov. 25:10; 2 Tim. 2:23; possibly 2 Cor. 7:5) and personal quarrels (Prov. 15:8; Sir. 28:8); but there is no reference here to doctrinal disputes, political or literal warfare between rival religious Jewish factions in Samaria and Galilee. The whole tone of the Epistle suggests a period of quiet stability; even the “confusion” of 3:16 does not suggest politics or violence (see too 1:8; 3:8).
These battles arise from the lusts within your body which fight against righteousness. Despite its philosophic guise, lusts is to be taken in a practical and bad sense (see, e.g., 4 Macc. 1:22; 5:23), probably, against Ropes, equivalent to “desires” of 1:14 (RV “lusts”; see Dibelius, p. 198, n. 3): here members is used collectively as the abode of the passions. We have already noted (Jas. 1:2, 12ff.) that James owes his doctrine of desire to the Jewish yetser, and, like the rabbis, associates the passions with the physical body—a point made explicit by the present verse, where the bodily appetites are said to reside in the flesh. But particularly in view of the Pauline use (e.g., Rom. 7:23; 1 Cor. 6:12–18), it is possible that members should not be understood literally. James has already used the expression in a natural and more individual manner of the tongue as one of the members, 3:6. Here the use is more figurative. According to C. A. Anderson Scott, Paul uses members (and “body”) “not so much in their physical connotation as in their function of giving expression to the personality.” This suggests that like Paul, especially in his doctrine of the “flesh,” James traced all sin neither to pleasure nor desire, but ultimately to the core of disordered personality.
A good commentary illustrating this passage is 1 Cor. 1:10–16. “You ask,” etc. (v. 3) suggests not abandoned sinners but false Christians: and it is Christians James is addressing.
The Question (4:1a)
James opens ch. 4 as he did 3:13, with a question loaded with rhetorical force: “Those conflicts and disputes among you, where do they come from?” He will answer that question with another question, “Do they not come from your cravings that are at war within you?” This question assumes an answer of yes. The NRSV’s rendering of 4:1a, while justifiable, both adds information with “those” and gathers up the nouns and the questions into two separable corners.226
A pressing question, and one not asked often enough in the Western world, is whether James’s terms “conflicts and disputes” refer to physical or verbal fights. A more graphic, if less elegant, translation brings out word connections: “warring and swording.” The word translated “conflicts” (polemoi) could refer to a state of hostility or to an outright war or battle, which is the common meaning in early Christian literature (Matt 24:6; Luke 14:31; 1 Cor 14:8; Heb 11:34; Rev 9:7, 9). But polemoi can also be metaphorical. Furthermore, the second word, “disputes” (machai), can have the same flexible meaning: either physical or metaphorical battles. The New Testament evidence supports a metaphorical meaning (2 Cor 7:5; 2 Tim 2:23; Tit 3:9). Even if some might think “among you” would point toward a metaphorical meaning, that is not the case: there can be as much a physical as a metaphorical battle among those who claim attachment to Jesus. At a minimum, the expressions refer to rivalrous factions gathering around the teachers, even if we cannot be sure what they were fighting about or how they were fighting. It is not at all impossible that “among you” could refer to the wider Jewish world.233
Religious violence, anchored as it was in both Old Testament and ancient ways, was more common to that society than most of us care to admit, and a good example is Paul’s own example (Acts 8:3; 9:1–2, 21; 22:4, 19; 26:10–11; Gal 1:23). Nor has the church failed to keep the pace with ancient violence—one needs to think of the bloody battles around Nicea, Constantine, the Crusades, the Reformation, the Inquisition, and beyond. I am not completely convinced that “conflicts and disputes” refers directly to physical violence, but that should remain as an open option, and v. 2 may well decide the issue. Ralph Martin speaks for this view: “Since James and his community were situated in a Zealot-infested society and since it is quite conceivable that (at least) some of the Jewish Christians were former Zealots (cf. Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13), the taking of another’s life is not out of the realm of possibility for church members as a response to disagreement.” Physical or not, even to this day the words of James should embarrass those who are committed to a Lord who taught the way of love, the way of peace, and whose cross brought into graphic reality a new (cross) way of life.236
The question of 4:1a is directed at the teachers. The answer will probe deeply into their hearts.
126.96.36.199. The Question Answered with a Question (4:1b)
James answers this first question with a second one that implies the answer: “Do they not come from your cravings that are at war within you?” The implication is this: “Yes, in fact, the conflicts and disputes do come from our cravings.” James anchors the zeal and ambition that lead to conflicts and disputes in the teachers’ “cravings.”238 While it is popular to utilize the etymology of “cravings” (hēdonai) and leap into a diatribe against hedonism in our culture, James’s use needs to be seen for what it is, and there is no evidence of a hedonism in what James is addressing. The teachers’ “cravings” uppermost in his mind are for power, control, and partisanship. It is wise to connect James’s use of hēdonai here with 1:14–15 and with Peter’s (1 Pet 1:14; 2:11; 4:2–3) and Paul’s use of the word “desires” (epithymiai, Rom 1:24; 6:12; 7:7–8; 13:14), but there is little reason to expand the desires in random directions. James has the teachers in mind, and their problem was loose tongues used to abuse individuals and divide the community. The use of the verb “You want something” (epithymeō) in 4:2 secures the importance of connecting the terms “cravings” and “desires.”
The “cravings” are “at war within you.” Does this mean that the cravings fight for control within each person/teacher (as in Romans 7) or create war among the members of the messianic community? There is evidence on both sides, and it would exceed the evidence to render a judgment too firmly for either view. To begin with, “within you” translates en tois melesin hymōn, which literally would be “among your members.” Inasmuch as “members” (melos) was used in the early church for church members, and inasmuch as James clearly speaks of division among the members (2:4–7), the term could be ecclesial. But an anthropological point could also be possible. After all, James knows of the divided soul (1:6–8) and the potency of human desires to overwhelm a Christian’s intent to do what is right (1:13–15); furthermore, Greeks, Romans, Jews, and Christians knew of various parts of the person and fashioned various dualisms: heart, soul, mind, conscience, flesh, and body. Inasmuch as James, at least in the immediate context, is less concerned with anthropology than with ecclesial division, I lean toward the ecclesial understanding of these terms.
Regardless, James’s language is violent: “that are at war.” Nothing comments on this quite like the struggle described in Romans 7, which, even if it is the story of Israel’s own experience in history under the Torah (as many today believe), still personifies or “corporatizes” the inner moral struggle to do what is good. Thus, Romans 7:21–23:
So I find it to be a law that when I want to do what is good, evil lies close at hand. For I delight in the law of God in my inmost self, but I see in my members another law at war with the law of my mind, making me captive to the law of sin that dwells in my members.
The standard evidence for the war among us or within us favors a more individualistic, anthropological reading of these verses. Thus, Galatians 5:17: “For what the flesh desires is opposed to the Spirit, and what the Spirit desires is opposed to the flesh; for these are opposed to each other, to prevent you from doing what you want.” When Peter turns to exhort his churches in his first epistle, he is on the same page as Paul: “Beloved, I urge you as aliens and exiles to abstain from the desires of the flesh that wage war against the soul” (2:11). Indeed, this is clearly an image for the individual’s moral struggle, but, because of recent discussions, we should also observe that it cannot be argued that this must be Greek, even if Plato’s famous lines in Phaedo 66c or Philo’s own borrowings (On the Decalogue 151–53) might suggest that James is now on Greek soil. One need look no further than the Dead Sea Scrolls to find something altogether similar (1QS 3:21–4:3):
The authority of the Angel of Darkness further extends to the corruption of all the righteous. All their sins, iniquities, shameful and rebellious deeds are at his prompting, a situation God in His mysteries allows to continue until His era dawns. Moreover, all the afflictions of the righteous, and every trial in its season, occur because of this Angel’s diabolic rule. All the spirits allied with him share but a single resolve: to cause the Sons of Light to stumble. Yet the God of Israel (and the Angel of His Truth) assist all the Sons of Light. It is actually He who created the spirits of light and darkness, making them the cornerstone of every deed, their impulses the premise of every action. God’s love for one spirit lasts forever. He will be pleased with its actions for always. The counsel of the other, however, He abhors, hating its every impulse for all time. Upon earth their operations are these: one enlightens a man’s mind, making straight before him the paths of true righteousness and causing his heart to fear the laws of God.
4:1 / What causes fights and quarrels among you? That is a good question, for if God’s wisdom is found in peacemakers, community strife does not come from them. A conflict with the pagan world or the synagogue might be the inevitable result of following Christian standards, but these are quarrels within the church (i.e., among you); civil war, not national defense.
James asks the question rhetorically, for he knows the answer: Don’t they come from your desires? As in 1:13–15, he will not blame external forces: the source is their own evil impulses or, as Paul would say, the old (or fleshly) nature. Their quarrels may be “only human,” but this is fallen humanity; until they recognize and repent of their sin, there is no hope for peace in the church.
The real battleground, then, is internal: The desires continually battle within you. The evil impulses in a person are not a part of the body (which can serve God as easily as evil) but are in the body and fight to control it. In theory, given the Spirit or “the wisdom from above,” people should be able to conquer these impulses, but given the fact that their allegiance is divided between God and the world (James 4:4, 8), there is no victory for these people but only a constant struggle between the part of them God has and the part controlled by the world. The language is graphic; the struggle is a deep experience.
1. What causes fights and quarrels among you? Don’t they come from your desires that battle within you?
We have the impression that the early Christian church was marked by peace and harmony. Think of the time after Pentecost when “all the believers were one in heart and mind” (Acts 4:32). This picture of the church, however, fades within the span of a decade or more. The recipients of the Epistle of James fight, quarrel, and are filled with selfish desires that drive them into sin, as the writer puts it in the first verse of the fourth chapter.
A word-for-word translation of the text is this: “Where do wars and fights come from among you? Do they not come from your desires for pleasure that war in your members?” (NKJV). We do well to interpret this passage figuratively, in the “sense of strife, conflict, quarrel.”1
Many translators refrain from giving a literal version of the Greek text. They think that the expression war points to an area of conflict outside the Christian community. James, however, is not describing international conflicts. As a pastor who is interested in the spiritual welfare of his people, he addresses “the twelve tribes scattered among the nations” (1:1).
Note that James asks the penetrating question, “What causes fights and quarrels among you?” He wants to know the origin of these fights and quarrels—the use of the plural indicates that they were not confined to an occasional disagreement. Thus, he looks beyond the symptoms to the cause of all these conflicts.
James answers his own question with a rhetorical question that elicits an affirmative reply: “Don’t they come from your desires that battle within you?” The term desires (note the plural) is the key word. It signifies that in his life, man chooses worldly pleasures that are contrary to the expressed will of God. As Jesus says in the parable of the sower, “the desires for other things come in and choke the word [of God], making it unfruitful” (Mark 4:19; also see Luke 8:14). In time, man becomes a slave to the desires of his heart and separates himself from God (Rom. 1:24; 2 Tim. 4:3; James 1:14; 2 Peter 3:3; Jude 16, 18).
When God no longer rules man’s life, the pursuit of pleasure takes over, and peace is disrupted because of frequent fights and quarrels.
The New International Version gives the reading your desires that battle within you. Other translations have “in your members” instead of “within you.” Is the conflict a personal matter (within yourselves) or a congregational dispute (among the members of your church)? We find an answer to this question when we study the word member in its scriptural context.
In a few places, Paul uses the expression members to describe the church as the body of Christ (Rom. 12:4–5; 1 Cor. 12:12, 27; Eph. 4:16; 5:30). But more strictly, this expression refers not to a theological or sociological context but to the human body. In the absence of a clear indication that James is thinking of the church, we interpret the term members to mean the physical bodies of the persons he addresses.
4:1. Two rhetorical questions try to locate the source of struggles and fights among Christians. Such fights and quarrels come from desires that battle within you.
The fights and quarrels involved conflicts among Christians. The plural form of both words indicates the conflicts were chronic rather than a one-time incident. The disputes could have taken the form of arguments and controversies between teachers and factions in the churches. It could also have involved struggles about worldly affairs such as personal influence and financial gain.
The Greek word translated “desires” is related etymologically to the English word, hedonism, the philosophy that the chief purpose of living is to satisfy self. Jesus used the same word to describe people “choked by life’s worries, riches and pleasures, and … do not mature” (Luke 8:14).There “pleasures” described any personal goal such as money, reputation, or success, which contributes to personal accomplishment rather than God’s will.
These sinful desires lay within each Christian. Even believers find in themselves an alien army which seeks self rather than God. These desires express our pre-Christian nature still seeking to control our lives (see Rom. 7:14–25). Christians will never be freed from the evil influence of these subtle desires, but by God’s grace we can escape their domination.
1. The passion for self-gratification is the cause of wars and fightings (verses 1, 2). Verse 1 contains two rhetorical questions. The first concerns the source of conflict in human relations: From whence come wars and fightings among you? “Wars and fightings” refers not to international wars but to feuds and conflicts in the Christian community. The two words mean about what we mean by “wars” and “battles.” That is to say, the first word denotes chronic hostility, and the latter word is used of a single encounter. The intensity of James’ feeling on the matter is brought out in the asv more clearly than it is in the kjv. The former reads: “Whence come wars and whence come fightings among you?” Note the repetition of the word “whence.”
Apart from what is told us here, we have no information on the nature or the occasion of these conflicts. Some have felt that James was thinking of disputes between rival teachers and their contentions for personal authority and distinction. Plummer thinks James is referring to “private quarrels and law-suits, social rivalries and factions, and religious controversies” (p. 215). John Adam feels that the reference is to “struggles about ordinary temporal affairs, about worldly interests and objects, about influence, reputation, position, and especially property, money, gains” (p. 283). But whatever the occasion, we know that feuds and conflicts among professing Christians are not confined wholly to the past. Who has not seen one section of a church drawn up in hostile array against another section of the same church? Instead of seeing one another as brothers and sisters in the Lord, they view themselves as adversaries and antagonists.
The latter part of the first verse gives the answer to James’ question: Come they not hence, even of your lusts that war in your members? The Greek word translated “lusts” literally means “pleasure” or “enjoyment.” However, it is used not only for the pleasure itself but of the desire for pleasure as well. Hence it is translated “passions” (rsv), “cravings” (Goodspeed), “cravings for pleasure” (Beck), “pursuit of pleasure” (Ropes). Found in only three other passages in the Greek New Testament, it always has a bad connotation. Luke 8:14 speaks of the “pleasures of this life” which along with “cares and riches” choke the Word so that it cannot take root in the heart. Titus 3:3 lists enslavement to “divers lusts and pleasures” as a characteristic of the unregenerate life. 2 Peter 2:13 refers to those who think that “pleasure consists in the self-indulgence of the moment” (tcnt). The teaching in our passage is that quarrels and conflicts arise because men make pleasures their aim. Their lives are not God-centered but self-centered.
Continuing the metaphor of warfare introduced earlier in the verse, James explains that these self-centered desires war in your members. Peter uses similar language when he urges Christians to abstain from fleshly lusts “which war against the soul” (1 Peter 2:11). James is less specific. He simply asserts that cravings for pleasure have their camp in the bodily organs (including the mental faculties), and from these they launch their attack against anything and everyone that dares to interfere with their gratification. Tasker writes: “The human personality has, as it were, been invaded by an alien army which is always campaigning within it.… Human nature is indeed in the grip of an overwhelming army of occupation” (p. 85).
Verse 2 develops more specifically the connection between “lusts” (pleasures) and “wars and fightings.” The verse should be read in the rsv: “You desire and do not have; so you kill. And you covet and cannot obtain; so you fight and wage war. You do not have, because you do not ask.” The construction is practically equivalent to a conditional sentence: “If you desire and cannot obtain, the result is that you kill. If you covet … the result is.…”
Ropes, commenting upon this, correctly observes that “James is not here describing the condition of any special community, but is analyzing the result of choosing pleasure instead of God. The final issue of the false choice is flagrant crime” (p. 255). Tasker similarly explains that James was writing a general letter and was not necessarily thinking of circumstances actually existing in a particular Christian community. He was emphasizing what can and does happen when men choose pleasure rather than God as a way of life. The laws of God are disregarded, and the desire for pleasure drives men to do things they never dreamed they were capable of doing. The story of Ahab and Naboth stands as a biblical reminder of the terrible end to which covetousness can lead.
The words translated ye lust and ye … desire are not exactly the same in meaning. The former word essentially means “to desire strongly,” and may be used of any intense longing. Such desire is wrong only if it is misdirected or excessive. Here it has an evil connotation. It may be rendered “lust” (kjv), “desire” (Williams), “want” (tev), “crave” (tcnt), “continually crave” (Montgomery). The latter word may also be used either in a good sense or in a bad sense. In a good sense it means to burn with zeal, to strive for, to desire. In a bad sense (as here) it means to burn with envy, to be filled with jealousy. F. J. A. Hort feels that in the present passage it expresses “envy of position or rank or fame … sordid and bitter personal ambition.” In line with this the neb reads, “You want something which you cannot have, and so you are bent on murder; you are envious, and cannot attain your ambition, and so you quarrel and fight” (italics mine).
James makes clear in the last statement of verse 2 that the reason why men, after all their coveting, envying, and struggling, still do not possess what they desire is found in the neglect of prayer. They hunger for satisfaction but are seeking it in the wrong place. “You do not have what you want because you do not ask God for it” (tev). Richard Baxter stated it well: “The manna lieth about your tents; walk out, gather it up, take it home, and feed upon it.” James’ statement assumes, of course, that the things desired are in themselves legitimate and within the will of God.
Someone has said that there are times when “the pull of our prayer may not move the everlasting throne, but like the pull on a line from the bow of a boat, it may draw us into closer fellowship with God and fuller harmony, with His wise and holy will.”
 MacArthur, J. F., Jr. (1998). James (pp. 184–186). Chicago: Moody Press.
 Guthrie, G. H. (2006). James. In T. Longman III & D. E. Garland (Eds.), The Expositor’s Bible Commentary: Hebrews–Revelation (Revised Edition) (Vol. 13, pp. 252–253). Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.
 Adamson, J. B. (1976). The Epistle of James (pp. 166–167). Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.
 McKnight, S. (2011). The Letter of James (pp. 321–325). Grand Rapids, MI; Cambridge, UK: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.
 Davids, P. H. (2011). James (p. 98). Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books.
 Kistemaker, S. J., & Hendriksen, W. (1953–2001). Exposition of James and the Epistles of John (Vol. 14, pp. 128–130). Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.
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 Vaughan, C. (2003). James (pp. 82–84). Cape Coral, FL: Founders Press.