25 Jesus solemnly declared that this would be his last festal meal with his disciples till the dawn of the messianic kingdom. “The fruit of the vine” is a liturgical formula for wine used at the feast. The drinking of the cup at the Supper anticipates the perfected fellowship of the messianic age. In the OT and Judaism, God’s ultimate salvation is sometimes portrayed as a great feast—the “messianic banquet” (Isa 25:6–8; 65:13–14; 1 En. 72:14; cf. Lk 13:29; 22:29–30; Mt 8:11; see TDNT 4:1103). The vow of Jesus consecrated him for his sacrificial death, but it also held out the promise of victory and salvation. He will drink the festal cup anew, i.e., with a new redeemed community in the kingdom of God (cf. Lk 14:15; Rev 3:20–21; 19:6–9).
25 Jesus’ words of promise were confirmed with a solemn oath that he would not share the festal cup until the meal was resumed and completed in the consummation. The sober reference “no more” indicates that this is Jesus’ final meal and lends to the situation the character of a farewell. The purpose of his vow of abstinence was to declare that his decision to submit to the will of God in vicarious suffering was irrevocable. Forswearing feasting and wine, Jesus dedicated himself with a resolute will to accept the bitter cup of wrath offered to him by the Father. Yet there is here a clear anticipation of the messianic banquet when the Passover fellowship with his followers will be renewed in the Kingdom of God.59 Then Jesus will drink the wine “new,” where in this context newness is the mark of the redeemed world and the time of ultimate redemption. The reference to “that day” envisions the parousia and the triumph of the Son of Man (see above on Ch. 13:24–27, 32; cf. 1 Cor. 11:26). Thus in the context of reflecting upon his violent death on behalf of the many, and just prior to the impending events of the passion, Jesus clearly affirmed his vindication and the establishment of an uninterrupted fellowship between the redeemed community and its Redeemer through the experience of messianic salvation.
The cup from which Jesus abstained was the fourth, which ordinarily concluded the Passover fellowship. The significance of this can be appreciated from the fact that the four cups of wine were interpreted in terms of the four-fold promise of redemption set forth in Exod. 6:6–7: “I will bring you out … I will rid you of their bondage … I will redeem you … I will take you for my people and I will be your God” (TJ Pesachim X. 37b). Jesus had used the third cup, associated with the promise of redemption, to refer to his atoning death on behalf of the elect community. The cup which he refused was the cup of consummation, associated with the promise that God will take his people to be with him. This is the cup which Jesus will drink with his own in the messianic banquet which inaugurates the saving age to come. The cup of redemption (verse 24), strengthened by the vow of abstinence (verse 25), constitutes the solemn pledge that the fourth cup will be extended and the unfinished meal completed in the consummation, when Messiah eats with redeemed sinners in the Kingdom of God (cf. Lk. 14:15; Rev. 3:20f.; 19:6–9).
25. Jesus concluded the inaugural celebration of the Lord’s Supper with a promise to His disciples, Truly I say to you, I will never again drink of the fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it new in the kingdom of God.” The fruit of the vine was a Jewish colloquialism that referred to wine; in this context, it specifically referred to the diluted red wine of the Passover meal. Earlier that same evening, Jesus had also told them, “I say to you, I shall never again eat it until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God” (Luke 22:16). Those words assured the disciples that He would return (cf. John 14:3), and that He would one day celebrate the Passover with them again in His millennial kingdom (cf. Ezek. 45:18–25). Until His return, believers are to continue to celebrate the memorial meal of His table (cf. 1 Cor. 11:23–24). Thus, the regular celebration of Communion not only looks back to Christ’s death but also looks forward with eager anticipation to His coming. The previous evening, Jesus had instructed His disciples about His return and the end of the age (cf. Mark 13:24–27). Now, on the night before His death, He reassured them that the cross did not represent the end of the story.
14:25 / I tell you the truth: This is the same solemn formula used elsewhere on Jesus’ lips with the force of an oath. See the note on 3:28.
I will not drink again of the fruit of the vine until …: “The fruit of the vine” is a Semitic expression meaning “wine.” Jesus is taking a vow of abstinence, promising that he will not share in another festal cup until he has done the will of God and participates with his disciples in the joy of the consummated kingdom of God. In the translation until that day when I drink it anew, the word anew refers to the joyous situation of the fully realized kingdom of God of the future.
14:25 I will not drink again from the fruit of the vine. As an amēn saying (cf. 3:28; 14:9, 18), Jesus’s words here give special emphasis to this fourth cup (see on v. 23), which concluded the meal. The vow of abstinence resembles a Nazirite vow (Num. 6:1–21, a vow of dedication to Yahweh). Jesus is also saying that he will never again drink wine on this earth, showing his “resolute will” to accept his Father’s will: his vicarious death was “irrevocable.”5
drink it new in the kingdom of God. This fourth cup was the cup of consummation, and the point is that God’s plan will not be finished until Christ returns and “the kingdom of my Father” has arrived in fullness. The “drink it new” anticipates the messianic banquet in Revelation 19:6–8 (cf. Isa. 25:6–9; 1 En. 62:13–16; 2 Bar. 29:5–8). This refers both to the “new wine” of the “new kingdom” and, adverbially, to Jesus drinking it “anew” at the end of the age.7 Our own eucharistic celebration likewise looks ahead to this eschatological banquet.
25. I solemnly declare to you that from now on I will certainly not drink from this fruit of the vine until that day when I am drinking710 it new in the kingdom of God. Note the solemn introduction, for which see on 3:28. Jesus knew that he was about to depart from his disciples. In fact, he was going to lay down his life the very next day; or, according to Jewish time reckoning, that very day (Friday).
By speaking of “the fruit of the vine” Jesus undoubtedly refers to wine. Note close relation between “vine” and “wine” in Isa. 24:7. See also Num. 6:4; Hab. 3:17. At this time of the year (April), and under conditions then prevailing in Judea, it is hard to think of anything but fermented grape juice, that is, wine, the kind of wine used at Passover; hence, diluted or paschal wine.
Note the expression “(I will certainly not drink from this fruit of the vine) until that day when I am drinking it new in the kingdom of God.” For “the kingdom of God” see on 1:15. It is the kingdom in its eschatological sense that is meant here, the glorious realm of the redeemed, to which their souls ascend at death (Ps. 73:24, 25; Acts 7:56, 59; 2 Cor. 5:8; Phil. 1:21, 23; Heb. 12:23; Rev. 20:4, 5b, 6). At the close of the present age it will be transformed into the new heaven and earth (Rev. 21:1 ff.). There believers, body and soul then gloriously reunited, will feast forever in the company of their Lord, to praise him forevermore. Then both passover and eucharist will reach their fruition.
We see, therefore, that communion not only points back to what Jesus Christ has done for us but also forward to what he is still going to mean for us. “Drinking new wine in the kingdom of God” (or “in my Father’s kingdom,” Matt. 26:29) is a symbol of the glorious reunion and never-ending festivities awaiting the children of God, in fellowship with their Savior—note: “when I am drinking it new”—in the hereafter. Cf. Ps. 23:5; Isa. 25:6; Matt. 8:11; 22:1 ff.; Luke 14:15; Rev. 3:20; 19:9, 17. Then, too, it is he, the Victorious Lamb, who will be the Host; and his faithful ones the guests, feasting with him!
 Wessel, W. W., & Strauss, M. L. (2010). Mark. In T. Longman III & D. E. Garland (Eds.), The Expositor’s Bible Commentary: Matthew–Mark (Revised Edition) (Vol. 9, p. 947). Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.
 Lane, W. L. (1974). The Gospel of Mark (pp. 508–509). Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.
 MacArthur, J. (2015). Mark 9–16 (p. 291). Chicago, IL: Moody Publishers.
 Hurtado, L. W. (2011). Mark (p. 240). Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books.
 Osborne, G. R. (2014). Mark. (M. L. Strauss & J. H. Walton, Eds.) (p. 264). Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books.
 Hendriksen, W., & Kistemaker, S. J. (1953–2001). Exposition of the Gospel According to Mark (Vol. 10, pp. 575–576). Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.