6 Your throne, O God, is forever and ever.
The scepter of your kingdom is a scepter of uprightness;
7 you have loved righteousness and hated wickedness.
Therefore God, your God, has anointed you
with the oil of gladness beyond your companions;
The Holy Bible: English Standard Version. (2016). (Ps 45:6–7). Wheaton, IL: Crossway Bibles.
You love righteousness and hate wickedness; therefore God, your God, has set you above your companions by anointing you with the oil of joy (v. 7). The person designated as ‘God’ in the previous verse is now marked off from him by the reference to ‘your God’. This passage has to be considered along with other messianic passages in the Old Testament. In the descriptions of the Angel of the Lord he is represented as being God himself, and yet at the same time he is distinguished from God. In verse 6 the king is God, while here in this verse he has been given by God an exalted position over his companions. These companions are probably other kings. This king is distinguished from them by the fact that his character is different. He is noted for his love of righteousness and his punishment of evildoers, and consequently God has given him special blessings. The anointing with oil is probably a figurative way of saying that God has blessed him with happiness. It should not be equated with the anointing at a coronation.
6–7 The throne of David is assured by covenant (v. 6). The throne of David was God’s trust to the descendants of David. Each king on David’s throne was reminded that he was king by “divine right” (vv. 6–7). But the Lord expected the sons of David to establish the throne (cf. 1 Ki 2:12, 46). The establishment of the throne was guaranteed by the active pursuit of justice and righteousness. The “scepter of justice” was a royal symbol of his authority to establish a rule of integrity based on the laws of God rather than on the whims or dictates of the king (cf. 67:4; 75:3; 89:14; 96:10; 98:8–9; 99:4; Isa 9:7; 11:4–5; see J. P. J. Olivier, “The Sceptre of Justice and Ps. 45:7b,” JNSL 7 : 45–54). In his deep love for “righteousness,” he opposes all forms of “wickedness.” God’s rule will be established on earth (v. 7; cf. 11:7; 33:5; 99:1–4). Our Lord, as the descendant of David, inherited the royal throne (cf. Heb 1:8–9). As the “Son” of God, his kingdom is everlasting.
45:6–7. This previous section accordingly focused on the preeminence of the divine King to all others—whether men or angels—which is precisely the intended point in Heb 1:8–9, where the culminating thought of this section, in Ps 45:6–7, is cited. The phrase Your throne, O God is the key and indicates that the King who is being addressed is God. While it might be possible to understand v. 6 in the sense “Your throne is divine” or “God is your throne,” the traditional understanding (Your throne, O God) is best for several reasons. Both in the verses before and after v. 6, the second person “you” predominates, and those uses refer to the King (see v. 1). When the King is referred to in v. 6 as being upon His throne, He is then called “God,” suggesting that this King is divine. Then, in v. 7b, when God is clearly referred to, the psalmist uses the third person (Your God [He], has anointed You), thus distinguishing God from the (divine) King. In v. 7, the phrase God, Your God is instructive after the use of God in v. 6. While the King may be divine, He must not forget that God is still His God. Implicit here is a distinction between the divine King Messiah and the divine Father.
One might object that no monotheistic Jewish poet would ever use “God” in the full sense of the word for a king of Israel. But the psalmist could speak of this King’s “splendor” and “majesty” (45:3) as well as God’s magnificence and grandeur (96:6; the same words are used in both passages). Likewise, the psalmist could speak of the King’s proclivity to support “truth” and “righteousness” (45:4, 6) as well as God’s same activity (33:5; 99:4; Is 61:8); the King’s ability to judge uprightly (Ps 45:6b) as well as God’s ability to do the same (67:4; 99:4); and this King has a throne that is eternal (45:6), just as God does (10:16; 93:2; 145:13). It seems reasonable that the king who is extolled in Ps 45 might be the Davidic King, presented in Ps 45 as divine.
6–7. Here we find Christ returned from the holy war, and sat down on the seat of the Conqueror. And we have God the Father speaking to this glorious Mediator, this triumphant king in Zion, and declaring the eternity and righteousness of his kingdom. Reader, do not forget, in this view of the Lord Jesus, that what is here said of him, and to him, is as Mediator: not as God only, but as God in Christ; the union of the manhood with the Godhead, to whom, as Jesus said himself, all power is given, in heaven and in earth; Matt. 28:18. It is of unspeakable importance to preserve alive in the mind this view of Christ’s throne: the felicity, salvation, and everlasting welfare of the whole Church, depends upon it: Rev. 3:21. And observe what a confirmation of this blessed truth we have in what follows: He loved righteousness, and hated iniquity. Of whom but the One chosen out of the people is this declared, to whom God spake in vision, even his Holy One, Christ as man, as well as Christ as God? for it is by the union of both in one person, that he is Christ. Psalm 89:19. Hence the Spirit, which was given, not by measure, unto him, was poured out upon him above, or for, his fellows; also, that he might be the first born among many brethren, and in all things might have the preeminence. What blessed scriptures these are, and how sweetly do they illustrate and explain each other! Hence, in this light, thus beholding Christ as the Mediator, is it to be considered, and in no other could it be said, that God is his God, from whom this anointing came, who hath set him as his King in Zion, and as a Priest upon his throne, and as the Prophet of his people. John 3:34. Exod. 30:30, 31. Psm. 133:2. Rom. 8:29. Coloss. 1:18. Psalm 2:6. Zech. 6:13. Deut. 18:15. 1 Sam. 2:35. Acts 3:22.
Vers. 6, 7. Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever.—The kingdom of Christ, an everlasting kingdom, and ruled with perfect justice and equity:—
- Show that Zion’s King is God.
- He is expressly called God in Scripture (Isa. 9:6; Rom. 9:5).
- Such attributes are ascribed to Him in Scripture as are competent to God only.
(1) Eternity (Micah 5:2).
(2) Immutability (Hebrews 1:10).
(3) Omniscience (John 21:15; 2:24, 25).
(4) Omnipresence (John 3:13).
- Divine worship, which is due to God only, is to be performed unto Him (Heb. 1:6; Ps. 2:12; 45:11; John 5:22, 23).
- Works are done by Him which none but an infinitely powerful agent can perform (Col. 1:16; John 11:25).
- The lasting and permanent nature of the kingdom of Christ.
- General observations.
(1) Our Lord Jesus has an essential kingdom, which is that absolute supreme power and authority which He exercises over all creatures in heaven, earth and hell (Ps. 103:19).
(2) He has a kingdom and throne of grace (Ephesians 1:22).
(3) The kingdom of grace or the Church of Christ may be considered either as set up and administered in the world, or as set up in the hearts of men.
(4) He has a throne and kingdom of glory.
- This kingdom is to endure for ever.
(1) Observe some things more generally concerning the perpetuity of the Church. The kingdom of our Lord Jesus was from everlasting in design; the King Himself is from everlasting, an eternal and mutable King; yea, He was chosen King of Zion from everlasting (Ps. 89:19). It will continue through all succeeding ages and generations. Though the kingdom of Christ, considered as to its present form of administration in the world, consisting in the preaching of the Word, the dispensation of the sacraments, will come to an end; these ordinances being no further necessary, once that the saints are perfected; yet, substantially considered, it shall be for ever and ever (Ps. 89:35, 37).
(2) Show in some particulars that the Church is for ever and ever. As the King is for ever and ever, so are the subjects of His kingdom (Rom. 5:17). They are all united to Him, and death cannot dissolve that union. When they have served their generations in this world according to His will, He will make them fixed pillars in His Father’s house above (Rev. 3:12). The laws of the kingdom are for ever and ever. The treasures of the kingdom are for ever and ever. These are the unsearchable riches of Christ (Eph. 3:8). The revenue of the kingdom is for ever and ever. The united praises of the saints is the revenue of the kingdom (Ps. 146:2). The charter of the kingdom is for ever and ever (Isa. 54:10; Tit. 1:2; Rev. 4:3).
III. Show that the kingdom of our Lord Jesus is ruled in the most just and equitable manner.
- There is a righteous Prince upon the throne. He came to the throne in a just and righteous manner; it was by the appointment of God the Father (Ps. 2:6).
- The laws of the kingdom are right.
- Our Lord Jesus effectually promotes and advances the spiritual welfare and advantage of His true subjects by all His dispensations toward the Church.
- The sceptre of the kingdom must be right; for the King “loves righteousness, and hates iniquity with a most perfect hatred”; and elsewhere the psalmist saith, “The righteous Lord loveth righteousness.”
- The sceptre of Immanuel’s kingdom will appear to be a right sceptre when it is considered that the King not only loves righteousness, but is perfectly in case to act according to the desire of His heart.
- Of information.
(1) We may see what a weighty and important work it was to redeem the Church, gather her from among the world lying in wickedness, wrest her out of the hand of Satan, rule and defend her from all her enemies, when none but an infinite Person was equal to the undertaking.
(2) We may see the dignity, safety and happiness of all the true subjects of Christ. It is their highest dignity to have Him for their King. Their life and safety lies in their union with, and relation to Him.
(3) See how absurd and impious it is to oppose the kingdom and interests of Christ, and molest His true subjects. “The sceptre of His kingdom is a right sceptre,” and therefore to oppose His rule and government is in the highest degree both sinful and dangerous.
(4) Is the sceptre of Christ a sceptre that is right? then we may see how unbecoming His subjects it is to quarrel with, fret and repine at any of His dispensations, either toward the Church in general, or themselves in particular.
(5) We may see that those who are determined by grace to give up themselves to Christ, to be saved by Him, and serve Him, are not such fools as the world takes them to be. He is managing all things in His kingdom for the advancement of His own glory, and the real good of His subjects, whether for the time they see him to be doing so or not.
(6) Hence, see the need we have of faith to believe that Zion’s King is doing all things well, even when His way is in the sea and His paths in the deep waters.
(7) Is the sceptre of Immanuel’s kingdom a right sceptre? then see how much it concerns all the subjects of His kingdom, to endeavour to imitate their King in acting a faithful, just and righteous part in their places and stations toward Him, one another, and all with whom they have occasion to be conversant.
(8) We should be constantly upon our guard against judging rashly about any part of Christ’s management in His kingdom that may for the time appear unaccountable to us (Acts 1:7).
- Of trial and examination. It concerns you, therefore, to try whether you be among the true subjects of Christ or not; and if you are really so, Zion’s King has the throne of your hearts; He possesses the highest room there, and Satan is dethroned (Luke 11:21). You are in some measure acquainted with spiritual light and liberty.
- Of exhortation.
(1) We exhort you who are the true subjects of Zion’s King to be thankful to God for erecting a kingdom of grace in the world, and particularly that He has set it up in the Gentile world (Isa. 24:16).
(2) We exhort all who are yet enemies to Zion’s King, young and old, poor and rich, to consider the sinfulness and danger of continuing in that condition. (T. Bennet.)
Ver. 7. Thy God hath anointed Thee with the oil of gladness above Thy fellows.—The gladness of Jesus:—
This is our exceeding joy—the gladness of Him who loved us and gave Himself for us. Yet it is not a matter of which we often think. The Man of Sorrows is much more familiar to us than the Saviour anointed with the oil of gladness. He was the saddest of men, but He was also the gladdest. This is not contradictory. The capacity for grief is the measure of the capacity for gladness. The depth is the height. He who never sinks never soars. The keen sensitiveness to sorrow is also and necessarily the keen sensitiveness, in every healthy soul, to joy. The perfect human nature of our Lord, having every faculty developed perfectly, had this in its completeness—the faculty of gladness.
- In the character of Jesus Christ there was nothing that marred or lessened in any wise His gladness. We are rent and torn by a score of distractions. It is as if the strings of the soul were some of them broken, and some were all unstrung; and on the others a dozen diverse players to contend for mastery. What a strife and horrid discord is life with many.
- Think, too, of the sources of gladness in Himself. All the beatitudes were His and His perfectly. And all the fruits of the Spirit—love, joy, peace and all the rest, all of them the elements of a perfect gladness.
- Then think of His gladness arising from His relationship alike to heaven and earth. “The Child grew and waxed strong in spirit; filled with wisdom; and the grace of God was upon Him.” And yet again, says St. Luke, “the Child increased in wisdom and stature, and in favour with God and man.” The perfect love of heaven and earth meet in Jesus. Count up all sources of gladness; there is none that can compare with the consciousness of God’s favour. To walk hand in hand with Him is Paradise restored.
(1) And He grew in favour with man. Never was any so gladdened with the love of earth as was our blessed Lord and Master. Whilst it is true that the world hated Him, and the Pharisees and Scribes took counsel against Him; yet it is also true that the inner circle of His acquaintance yielded Him a devotion such as none else ever knew. Men and women, and little children gladdened the heart of Jesus. And we can help to make Him glad. We do so when we bring to Him our gratitude, and love and trust. Think of the gladness of His youth. He was no melancholy boy of whom we read that He grew in favour with men; no mysterious dreamer whom none could understand. Never, surely, was there upon the earth a sunnier boyhood than that of the holy Child of Nazareth. Take the story of the wedding at Cane of Galilee. Take another instance—“In that hour Jesus rejoiced in spirit and said, I thank Thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because Thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them unto babes.” The word means literally that He “danced for joy.” It is an instance of a joy which could not either be restrained or uttered. And the source of it may well suggest the thought that it was not a single or exceptional event in His life. Then, think of the gladness of Jesus in His work—its purpose, its objects, the poor; His fitness for it, His power in it; see His miracles. See the parables of Luke 15 as showing His joy. (Mark Guy Pearse.)
The gladness of the Man of Sorrows:—
- That part of our Saviour’s Joy which is given Him by His Father. He possessed much of this anointing with the oil of gladness even while He was here on earth. He grew in favour both with God and man. Then, His was the joy of doing good. To do as He did must give joy to a benevolent mind. And of being good. And in the consideration that He was doing His Father’s will. And in the glorious prospect. And after He had “endured the cross, despising the shame.” And what joy was His as the risen Mediator. That He had now accomplished a work which He had meditated upon from all eternity. Consider, too, His joy must have been commensurate with the pains which He endured, and how great they were. His joy would arise from the enemies He had overcome, from His having loved righteousness. See His life; the effect of His work. The text adds, “Thou hatest wickedness.” A man’s character is not complete without a perfect hatred of sin. And Christ’s joy is greater than that of all others. Thus did God anoint Him.
- The gladness afforded by the Church. The merits, graces, their love, their praise, their prayers, their faith, are like the myrrh, etc., that when He rides in His triumphal chariot He scatters odour all around. He rejoices over the saints as the objects of His choice; and because they have cost Him so much; and they are His workmanship. Let us think how we can make Him glad.
III. Let us be glad in Him. God has made the King glad, and His saints make Him glad; let us be glad too. But let us mind that our gladness is of the right sort. “We will rejoice and be glad in Thee.” (C. H. Spurgeon.)
The oil of gladness:—
The anointing received by our Lord was the resting upon Him of the Spirit of God without measure (Isa. 61). Therefore by the “oil of gladness” is meant the Holy Spirit as the Spirit of joy. The whole Trinity is engaged in our salvation. The Father sends the Son, the Son comes, the Holy Spirit anoints Him.
- The Saviour’s anointing with gladness. We think more often of our Saviour as the “Man of Sorrows” rather than in connection with gladness. To those who only saw Him outwardly He was the Man of Sorrows, but those who knew His heart knew well that a deep joy abode there. Is there not seen to be happiness in the heart when the noblest motives are paramount and the sweetest graces bear sway?
- Our Lord’s gladness which He had in His work, Psalm. 40 tells of Him as saying, “I delight to do Thy will, O my God.” At the well of Samaria His joy in the conversion of the woman He met there made Him quite forget all about His need of food. “I have meat to eat that ye know not of”—so He tells His disciples. Once, indeed, His joy flowed over, so that others could see it, when He said, “I thank Thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because,” etc. And it is added, “At that hour Jesus rejoiced in spirit.” And so, in their measure, is it with those who are His followers. They also are in like manner anointed with the oil of gladness. “With gladness and rejoicing shall they be brought;” they work for the King with a willing heart.
- Note, further, that our Lord had this oil of gladness from His work. He did reap in joy as well as sow in tears. The good shepherd rejoiced when he had found his sheep that was lost. The Saviour looks upon the redeemed with an unspeakable delight. And we may be partakers in this joy of being instrumentally the saviour of others; then you, also, partake of His gladness.
- And our Lord has this gladness in this sense too—that His person and His work are the cause of ineffable gladness in others. It fills us with delight only to think of Him. “The very thought of Thee with sweetness fills my heart.” What gladness He created when He was here below. And if the Lord Jesus be with us, we can give joy to others. There are some whose very presence comforts others, their words are so full of consolation and help.
- The reason for the bestowal of this anointing upon Him. “Thou lovest righteousness and … therefore God,” etc. There must be perfect holiness before there can be perfect happiness. Sin is the enemy of joy. Let the sinner say what he likes, sin can no more dwell with real joy than the lion will lie down with the lamb. Now, every way Jesus loved righteousness intensely. He died that He might establish it. And those who are in fellowship with Him are anointed also. The holy oil was forbidden to be placed upon a stranger to God’s holy house; and upon man’s flesh it could not be poured, because man’s flesh is a corrupt and polluted thing. So, then, because He is righteous Himself, and because He makes others righteous, Christ has received this anointing.
III. The manner of the operation of this, this oil of gladness upon us. Now, does the Holy Spirit give us gladness?
- Because we are anointed “kings and priests with God, and we shall reign for ever.”
- We are consecrated to the Lord. We are not our own, we are bought with a price.
- By this oil we are qualified for our office (1 John 2:20).
- The Spirit of God heals our diseases. The Eastern mode of medicine was generally the application of oil, and certainly the Holy Spirit is a healer to us. What wounds and bruises have been healed with this oil.
- Thus, also, we are supplied and softened. So was it with the body when oil was applied to it, and softness and tenderness of heart are the work of the Holy Spirit.
- By the oil of the Holy Spirit we are strengthened.
- Perfumed. (C. H. Spurgeon.)
Jesus Christ anointed with the oil of gladness above His fellows:—
- The fellowship that is between Christ and all true believers.
- General observations.
(1) All the fellowship which any of the sons of men have with Christ is founded in union to His person and reconciliation to God through Him.
(2) The fellowship that is betwixt Christ and believers does not constitute an equality between Him and them.
(3) As our Lord Jesus was alone in the work of redemption, having no hand either of man or angel to help Him, as lie tells us (Isaiah 63:3), so He has no partners in the glory resulting therefrom.
- Our Lord’s exaltation, here called His being, anointed with the oil of gladness.
- Preliminary remarks.
(1) Our Lord’s humiliation made no change with respect to His person.
(2) As His humiliation made no change in respect of His person, so neither has His exaltation. Wherefore, when we speak of His being exalted, He is to be considered not as God absolutely, but as God-man Mediator. It is only as sustaining this character that He could either be humbled or exalted.
- Some particulars wherein our Lord’s exaltation doth consist.
(1) It consists in “a manifestation of the glory of His Deity in and through His humanity. As it had been obscured in the humanity while He was humbled, so it breaks out in the humanity when that nature is glorified, as a candle in a dark lantern doth through the transparent crystal, when the obscuring plate is drawn aside.” This is the glory which He prayed for (John 17:5).
(2) It consists in the raising of the human nature of Christ to an inconceivable height of glory; such a height of glory as the human nature united to a Divine Person is capable of, which must be by many degrees superior to what either mere men or angels are capable to enjoy.
(3) View His exaltation as set over against His humiliation (Phil. 2:8–11). In His resurrection He was exalted above the grave; in His ascension He was exalted above the earth; and in His session at the Father’s right hand He was made higher than the heavens, “exalted far above all heavens” (Eph. 4:10).
(4) The exaltation of Christ consists in His being furnished in His human nature with all these gifts and endowments of the Spirit which are suitable and necessary to the glorious condition unto which He is now raised at the Father’s right hand (Acts 2:33; Eph. 4:8).
- Inquire why our Lord’s exaltation is called His being anointed with the oil of gladness; or show whence it is that His exaltation did afford Him so much gladness.
(1) His exaltation afforded Him the greatest joy and gladness, being a most infallible proof that God the Father is well pleased with what He has done.
(2) Because then the eternal salvation of an innumerable company of fallen men, for whom He had an everlasting love, was effectually secured. And He was now to sit with the most consummate delight and satisfaction at the Father’s right hand, and see the travel of His soul entering into the joy of their Lord from every quarter under heaven according to the promise (Isaiah 53:11).
(3) Because by His exaltation He was freed from all that labour, toil and sorrow to which He bad been so eminently exposed in His humbled estate.
III. Show in what respects our Lord Jesus may be said to be anointed with the oil of gladness, or exalted above His fellows.
- Jesus Christ is anointed above His fellows, in regard He is deservedly exalted to all that glory which He now possesses as Mediator, and that, whether we consider His exaltation as the proper reward of His humiliation or not.
- He is exalted above His fellows, in regard His exaltation was effected by His own power, He arose from the dead by His own power (John 2:19). “It was not possible for Him to be holden of death.”
- He is exalted above His fellows, in regard His human nature, in virtue of its union with His Divine Person, is capable of possessing an inconceivably greater degree of glory than any of His fellows.
- He is exalted above His fellows, in regard His exaltation effectually secures theirs. He has meritoriously procured the exaltation of all His fellows by His humiliation. And when He ascended on high, the everlasting doors were cast wide open, never to be shut again till all His fellows be brought where He is (Ps. 24:7).
- Jesus Christ is exalted above His fellows, inasmuch as He is to be the eternal object of their worship and adoration.
- Of information.
(1) We may see that the work of redemption as to purchase is a finished work (Heb. 4:10).
(2) We may see that the work of redemption is highly pleasing and delightful to God. It is called “the pleasure of the Lord” (Isa. 53:10). And He has given undoubted evidence that it is so in the glorious advancement of Christ to “His own right hand,” and His appointing him “the Heir of all things.”
(3) We may see that the reproach and ignominy of the cross is entirely wiped away, and the human nature greatly dignified.
(4) We may see with what holy boldness and confidence we may draw near to God.
(5) See what ample security all true believers have for their being exalted in due time. Christ is exalted, and they are already exalted in Him as their Head and Representative (Eph. 2:6), and they shall be exalted with Him in their own persons; He is now “lifted up from the earth,” and “will draw them” after Him. His demand shall be fully answered (John 17:24).
(6) Is Jesus Christ exalted? Then see how vain all the attempts of hell and earth against His work and interest must prove in the issue.
(7) See noble encouragement to all who hear the Gospel to come to Christ for all spiritual blessings.
(8) See the dreadful sin and danger that there must be in despising Christ now that He is highly exalted. When the sin of despising Him in His humbled estate, when He appeared but as a tender plant, and a root sprung out of a dry ground, was so very great, it must still be more highly aggravated now, because the Son of Man is now glorified.
- Of trial.
(1) What experience have you of being “planted in the likeness of Christ’s death”?
(2) All who shall be exalted to a state of glory with Christ are first planted in the likeness of His resurrection (Rom. 6:5).
(3) If you really expect, yea, if you in earnest desire to be where Christ is, you are much concerned about being “made meet” for the glory that is to be revealed.
(4) Does the prospect of your being anointed with the oil of gladness in due time support and comfort your hearts under present discouragements?
(5) All Christ’s fellow, all true believers dearly love Him. They admire His person, and his beauty is incomparable in their esteem. They admire His love, and put the highest value on His righteousness.
- Of exhortation.
(1) As to you who are believers. We exhort you to bless God for Christ, who was “delivered for your offences,” etc. Rejoice that Christ is now “anointed with the oil of gladness.” His exaltation is matter of great joy to all His fellows (John 14:28), both on His own account, because all His sorrows are now swallowed up of joy; and on their account, Because He is gone to heaven on their business, and as their Forerunner. He is gone to prepare a place for them, and to prepare them for the enjoyment of it, by His Spirit. We exhort you, while you are at home in the body, and so absent from the Lord, carefully to keep up the correspondence which He settled betwixt Him and all His fellows before He left this world, in respect of His bodily presence (John 14:13). Be exhorted to act faithfully for Christ in your day and generation, place and station in the world. We exhort you to look forward, and press on through all opposing difficulties “toward the mark for the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus.” Lift up your heads, and look out for the day of your complete redemption (Isa. 35:10; John 14:3).
(2) We exhort you, who are yet in a natural state and condition, to lay to heart the sin you stand chargeable with, the misery you are under, and the wrath to which you are exposed. (T. Bennet.)
 Harman, A. (2011). Psalms: A Mentor Commentary (Vol. 1–2, pp. 368–369). Ross-shire, Great Britain: Mentor.
 VanGemeren, W. A. (2008). Psalms. In T. Longman III & D. E. Garland (Eds.), The Expositor’s Bible Commentary: Psalms (Revised Edition) (Vol. 5, p. 399). Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.
 Rydelnik, M. A., & Vanlaningham, M. (Eds.). (2014). Psalms. In The moody bible commentary (p. 799). Chicago, IL: Moody Publishers.
 Hawker, R. (2013). Poor Man’s Old Testament Commentary: Job–Psalms (Vol. 4, pp. 307–308). Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software.
 Exell, J. S. (1909). The Biblical Illustrator: The Psalms (Vol. 2, pp. 413–417). New York; Chicago; Toronto; London; Edinburgh: Fleming H. Revell Company; Francis Griffiths.