Daily Archives: February 18, 2021

Congress rolls out Biden’s immigration bill banning the term ‘ILLEGAL ALIEN’ and providing ‘pathway’ to citizenship — RT USA News

US lawmakers are moving forward with President Joe Biden’s immigration reform plan, introducing a bill that aims to erase the concept of “illegal aliens” and give millions of such residents an easier way to become lawful citizens.

The US Citizenship Act of 2021, backed by Biden and introduced on Thursday by lead legislative sponsors Representative Linda Sanchez (D-California) and Senator Bob Menendez (D-New Jersey), would replace the word “alien” with “noncitizen” in government documents. It would include other elements of the immigration initiative that Biden announced on Inauguration Day, including an eight-year pathway for illegal aliens to obtain citizenship, and a fast-track process for legalizing farm workers and so-called “Dreamers” – immigrants who were brought to the country illegally as minors.

 Also on rt.com

Wayne Dupree: Mass illegal immigration threatens our American way of life, but Biden is opening the floodgates

Biden also plans to increase the per-country caps on family and employment-based immigration, and to boost the annual number of so-called diversity visas – those awarded randomly, by lottery, in largely Third World nations with relatively little immigration to the US – to 80,000 from 55,000. Travel bans, such as that imposed by former President Donald Trump on predominantly Muslim countries, would be blocked. Among the justifications for such a travel ban from the previous administration was the fact it targeted countries with inadequate or nonexistent security-vetting capabilities.

“We have an economic and moral imperative to pass big, bold immigration reform,” Menendez told reporters. The bill would modernize immigration and move beyond Trump’s “hateful horror show,” he added.

Unlike past attempts at legalizing the millions of illegal aliens already living in the US, the Biden bill wouldn’t pledge a strong crackdown on border security in return. The legislation would expand anti-drug task forces in Central America and provide increased funding for technology investments at the southern border, but enhanced legal orientations and protections would help immigrants avoid being caught up in ICE raids.

The “pathway to citizenship” would be available for all immigrants who were residing in the country as of January 1, 2021. Those applying for citizenship would immediately gain “lawful protected immigrant” (LPI) status, allowing them to work legally in the country, and would be eligible for a green card after five years. Citizenship could be granted after an additional three years. The overall process would be cut to eight years from the current 13.

 Read more

The same abhorrent Republican neocons whose treachery gave rise to Trump are talking of forming a new party because of Trump

Biden would also allow immigrants who previously lived in the US but left the country for three years to qualify for LPI status, meaning that people who departed or were deported during Trump’s presidency would be able to jump in line without penalty.

Dreamers would be allowed to skip the LPI process and start with a green card, giving them a three-year wait for citizenship. Anyone who entered the US as a minor prior to January 1, 2021 would qualify as Dreamers – a far larger subset than was previously protected under former President Barack Obama’s DACA order – and their spouses and children would be given the same privileges.

Biden’s plan also would allow more migrants to live with family members in the US and work legally while awaiting visas, and it would wipe away certain types of criminal convictions for purposes of immigration. Even the criteria for recognizing marriages would be liberalized.

While supporters of the bill will emphasize phrasing such as “pathway to citizenship,” immigration lawyer Hassan Ahmad acknowledged that the Biden plan is an amnesty program. In fact, he said, “This would be the largest amnesty in history. The anti-immigrant movement will not let this slide. This bill is a reversal of 40 years of their hateful advocacy.”

While Democrats control both houses of Congress, they lack the 60-vote majority that would be needed to force a vote under the Senate cloture rule if Republicans blocked the legislation in unison. Immigration advocacy groups are calling for eliminating the filibuster rule – changing a fundamental aspect of US lawmaking that dates from Ancient Rome – to ram through Biden’s bill.

“Now is the time for Democrats to use every tool at their disposal to provide protection to the immigrant community without relying on the party of Trump and without compromising on further inhumane enforcement,” Erika Andiola, chief advocacy officer with RAICES, told USA Today.

Senator Tom Cotton (R-Arkansas) called Biden’s bill “a disaster,” saying: “It does nothing to secure our border, yet grants mass amnesty, welfare benefits – even voting rights – to over 11 million people who came here illegally. It’s a nonstarter.”

— Read on www.rt.com/usa/515980-biden-immigration-bill-introduced/

Democrats’ ‘No Glory For Hate Act’ Seeks To Ban Trump Namesake, Restrict Burial – Conservative Review

Democratic lawmakers introduced a bill last month seeking to ban former President Donald Trump from having federally funded statues, monuments, street names, or even park benches named after him or dedicated to commemorating his presidency. The legislation, dubbed “No Glory for Hate” would also bar Trump from being buried at Arlington National Cemetary.

— Read on www.conservativereview.com/democrats-no-glory-for-hate-act-seeks-to-ban-trump-namesake-restrict-burial-2650614419.html

Biden kills Keystone but promotes pipeline for Taliban | WND

(Image by Robson Machado from Pixabay)

After canceling the Keystone XL pipeline, eliminating thousands of American jobs, President Biden’s administration began negotiating a deal between the Taliban and one of the world’s worst dictatorships for a trans-national pipeline.

An agreement with the government of Turkmenistan would bring gas across Afghanistan and Pakistan to India, writes Michael Rubin, a scholar at the American Enterprise Institute and a former Pentagon official, in a column for the Washington Examiner.

“Consider that while the Biden administration is killing a pipeline from which the public could benefit, Biden is promoting a pipeline to enrich both one of the world’s worst dictatorships and a group responsible for thousands of U.S. deaths,” he wrote.

It’s the same deal that now-Special Envoy Zalmay Khalilzad sought to make with the Taliban prior to the 9/11 attack.

Rubin noted that Freedom House’s latest Freedom in the World report ranks Turkmenistan as among the world’s worst violaters of civil liberties, below even North Korea.

The deal includes paying the Taliban protection money or transit fees for the pipeline transiting Afghan territory. It amounts to a reward of tens of millions a month to the Taliban for its deadly insurgency, further undermining the elected Afghanistan government.

Rubin points out the harm to U.S. strategic interests, arguing that after 20 years there should be no misunderstanding of the Taliban’s malign agenda.

“If the Biden administration says no to pipeline jobs in the Midwest, it should not then turn around and help enrich the Taliban to ship Turkmen gas to the Indian Ocean,” Rubin contended. “It is time for Secretary of State Antony Blinken to call his envoy, end this hypocrisy, and stop coddling some of the world’s most anti-American movements.”

Rubin argued that the cancellation of Keystone also does not help the environment. Canada will continue extracting oil from the tar sands of northern Alberta. But instead of sending the oil through a state-of-the-art pipeline, it be delivered by trains, trucks, existing pipelines and ships, where the damage from a potential spill would be harder to manage.

“Biden’s cancellation cost jobs and pushes Canada toward greater economic cooperation with China,” he wrote. “It also shakes confidence in U.S. business. Who would invest in the country if any future administration can simply renege on deals with the stroke of a pen? Especially, that is, when the investments involved here reach into the billions of dollars?”

‘I feel pretty betrayed’

Among the critics of Biden’s cancellation of the Keystone pipeline are Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and West Virginia Democratic Sen. Joe Manchin.

Manchin argues the pipeline was a safer way to transport oil than ships or trains.

Earlier this month, the personal impact of Biden’s executive order was captured in an interview with longtime oil and gas industry workers David and Kristina Dickerson.

“I feel pretty betrayed,” David, a 31-year veteran of the industry, said in a “Fox & Friends” interview.

A Fox Business Network feature showed the impact of the loss of thousands of jobs on towns from Canada to Texas.

See the FBN report:


Tim McMillan, chief executive of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, told Reuters that Biden’s action “is killing thousands of Canadian and American jobs at a time when both economies badly need private investment” and wiped out equity investment in the pipeline by Canadian indigenous groups.

WND reported the president of the United Association of Union Plumbers and Pipefitters complained that Biden gave in to the “voices of fringe activists” when he killed the Keystone XL pipeline.

But it shouldn’t have been a surprise, because the union endorsed Biden after he announced he would make the move.

Mark McManus argued that there’s no issue with the environment, insisting that when “built with union labor by the men and women of the United Association, pipelines like Keystone XL remain the safest and most efficient modes of energy transportation in the world.” Without the pipeline, the oil must be transported with trains that are subject to derailing.

— Read on www.wnd.com/2021/02/biden-kills-keystone-promotes-pipeline-taliban/

Biden’s mass-legalization plan for illegal immigrants criticized, shows signs of trouble – Washington Times

Democrats unveiled President Biden’s mass-legalization plan in Congress on Thursday, proposing legal status for perhaps 11 million illegal immigrants already here, fewer penalties on future illegal immigrants, and a major immediate increase in legal immigration.

— Read on www.washingtontimes.com/news/2021/feb/18/bidens-mass-legalization-plan-illegal-immigrants-c/

Greg Kelly Discusses President Trump Interview Banned by Google – The Last RefugeThe Last Refuge

After Greg Kelly interviewed President Trump on a variety of topics, Google removed the video from You Tube claiming a violation of community standards.   Tonight, Greg Kelly recaps that interview and other topics.

‘We The People’ stand with President Trump; Big Tech is scared of that – Bigly.

One point on the media overall.  The far-left is addicted to Trump. Their ratings are collapsing because they have no other topic to fill their cup.   Democrats cannot quit Trump…. They are addicted to him. Without Trump, Democrats have no identity.

— Read on theconservativetreehouse.com/2021/02/18/greg-kelly-discusses-president-trump-interview-banned-by-google/

WATCH: Top Biden adviser unable to explain why lockdowns aren’t working – Conservative Review

Andy Slavitt, Senior COVID Response Adviser with the Biden administration, was asked on Thursday why states with lockdowns don’t have any better numbers than those not locking down. 

— Read on www.conservativereview.com/watch-top-biden-adviser-unable-to-explain-why-lockdowns-arent-working-2650618053.html

Report: Wuhan Lab Received US Funds, Still Eligible Into 2024 | Newsmax.com

The Wuhan Institute of Virology, the China lab U.S. intelligence has tied to the worldwide outbreak of the novel coronavirus, received U.S. funding from 2014 to 2019 for studies on bat-based coronaviruses, according to the Daily Caller. 

— Read on www.newsmax.com/newsfront/wuhan-virology-institute-ecohealth/2021/02/18/id/1010654/

02/18/2021 — Wretched


  • Should we be talking about Ravi Zacharias postmortem?
  • This shouldn’t be a happy subject for anyone.
  • We want to approach this carefully and wisely.
  • Let’s hear from you.
  • Our leaders are being done a disservice when we don’t hold them accountable.
  • Theology is a big deal.

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02/18/2021 — Wretched

The Fear of the Lord: February 18, 2021 — Ligonier Ministries Blog

The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom (Prov. 9:10)—but what does it mean to fear God? Should Christians be afraid of their Creator after He has reconciled them to Himself?

Recently, Dr. Michael Reeves and Ligonier Teaching Fellow Dr. Burk Parsons joined our president and CEO, Chris Larson, for a discussion on the fear of God. On February 18, we streamed this discussion as they considered why this neglected and often-misunderstood subject is so important for Christians living in a world that treats God lightly.

This special event was streamed on Ligonier’s blog, YouTubeFacebook, and Twitter. You can also watch a recording of the discussion below.

The Fear of the Lord: February 18, 2021 — Ligonier Ministries Blog

February 18 Evening Quotes of The Day

Fixing on God for God’s Sake
Isaiah 58:13–14; Matthew 6:33

If the heart be directly and chiefly fixed on God, and the soul engaged to glorify him, some degree of religious affection will be the effect and attendant of it. But to seek after affection directly and chiefly, to have the heart principally set upon that, is to place it in the room of God and his glory. If it be sought, that others may take notice and admire us for our spirituality and forwardness in religion, it is then abominable pride: if for the sake of feeling the pleasure of being affected, it is then idolatry and self-gratification.


Ritzema, E., & Vince, E. (Eds.). (2013). 300 Quotations for Preachers from the Puritans. Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press.

The Role of Government in Keeping Peace
Matthew 7:12; Luke 6:31; Romans 13:1–4

Christians have peace with all men, and altogether abstain from armor; for everyone does that to another which he would wish to have done to himself. But, because all are not so minded, but that many unruly persons, wicked thieves, and oppressors of the poor live and dwell among honest and good-meaning men, as wild beasts among harmless creatures, therefore God from heaven has given the sword into the magistrate’s hand, to be a defense for harmless people against unruly cutthroats.


Ritzema, E. (2013). 300 Quotations for Preachers from the Reformation. Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press.

February 18 Evening Verse of the Day

5:19 The expression will be made does not refer to the last judgment, as if our salvation were pending until that time. Rather, it pictures the fact that believers are made righteous when they come to faith. Since Paul knew many people were yet to come to faith when he wrote, it was fitting to use future tense.[1]

5:19 one man See note on v. 12.

the many will be made righteous Although Christ’s obedience has implications for the justification of all people, it does not result in justification apart from their acceptance of the free gift (see v. 17).[2]

5:19 Because of Adam’s disobedience, all people were made (Gk. kathistēmi, “cause[d] to be”) sinners. Thus, when Adam as mankind’s representative sinned, God regarded the whole human race as guilty sinners, thereby imputing Adam’s guilt to everyone. In other words, God regarded Adam’s guilt as belonging to the whole human race, while also declaring that Adam’s guilt does in fact belong to all. All are therefore sinners, and are born with a sinful nature that is set in the mold of Adam’s transgression.[3]

5:19 made righteous. This expression probably refers to one’s legal status before God and not an actual change in character, since Paul is contrasting justification and condemnation throughout this passage, and he has not yet introduced the doctrine of sanctification (chaps. 6–8) which deals with the actual transformation of the sinner as a result of redemption.[4]

5:19 Made means “to make,” “constitute.” As the result of Adam’s sin, people became sinners. By Christ’s death many will be made righteous (in contrast to declared righteousness, see 4:3). That is, believers are actually being constituted or made righteous. Through the sanctifying work of the Holy Spirit, the believer who has been declared righteous by God is continually becoming more righteous.[5]

5:19 Just as by Adam’s disobedience to God’s command many were made sinners, so also by Christ’s obedience to the Father many who trust Him are declared righteous. Christ’s obedience led Him to the cross as our Sin-bearer.

It is futile for universalists to use these verses to try to prove that all men will eventually be saved. The passage deals with two federal headships, and it is clear that just as Adam’s sin affects those who are “in him,” so Christ’s righteous act benefits only those who are “in Him.”[6]

5:19 “one man’s disobedience … the obedience of the One” Paul was using the theological concept of Old Testament corporality. One person’s acts affected the whole community (cf. Achan in Josh. 7). Adam and Eve’s disobedience brought about the judgment of God on all creation (cf. Gen. 3). All creation has been affected by the consequences of Adam’s rebellion (cf. 8:18–25). The world is not the same. Humans are not the same. Death became the end of all earthly life (cf. Gen. 5). This is not the world that God intended it to be!

In this same corporate sense Jesus’ one act of obedience, Calvary, resulted in (1) a new age, (2) a new people, and (3) a new covenant. This representative theology is called “the Adam-Christ typology” (cf. Phil. 2:6). Jesus is the second Adam. He is the new beginning for the fallen human race.

© “made righteous” See Special Topic at 1:17.[7]

Ver. 19. For, by the obedience of one many were made sinners, and by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous.

One man’s disobedience and its consequence:

  1. Man was made in the image of God, which consisted partly—1. In his power over all terrestrial creatures (Gen. 1:26; Psa. 8:5, 6). Hence he gave names (Gen. 2:19, 20). 2. In the perfection of his nature, endued with—(1) Reason. (2) Will (3) Knowledge (Col. 3:9, 10). (4) True holiness (Eph. 4:24).
  2. Man fell from this high estate through disobedience (Gen. 2:16, 17; 3:1, &c.) 1. How this was done. (1) Through Satan’s temptation, which was managed with great cunning. (a) He enters the serpent, the subtlest creature. (b) Sets upon the woman, the weaker vessel (1 Pet. 3:7). (c) Propounds a doubtful question (Gen. 3:1). (d) Denies the truth of God’s threatenings (Rom. 5:4). (e) Gives a contrary promise and uses the name of God to confirm it (Rom. 5:5). (2) Through the woman’s fault. (a) In entering into a dispute with the devil. (b) In doubting the truth of God’s command. (c) In eating the fruit. (3) Through the man’s fault. In taking the fruit at her hands. 2. What was involved. (1) He broke the first command, by infidelity, ingratitude, contempt of God, and ambition to be like God (Gen. 3:5). (2) Hearkened to the devil’s word before God’s. (3) Pleased his wife rather than God. (4) Murdered his whole posterity (John 8:44). (5) Minded the lusts of the flesh more than the law of God. (6) Stole God’s fruit. (7) Coveted God’s attributes.

III. Through this disobedience all his posterity were made sinners. 1. By imputation. (1) In that all sinned in him (vers. 12, 16–18; Heb. 7:9, 10). (2) In that all died in him (chap. 6:23; 1 Cor. 15:22). (3) All were then in his loins; so that he was the common father of all mankind; therefore called Adam, i.e., man in general (Gen. 5:1). 2. By inhesion. All, through Adam’s sin—(1) Are born in sin (Psa. 51:5; Job 14:4; Eph. 2:3; John 3:3). Hence only is it that children die. (2) Do actually commit sin, which shows all mankind to be polluted with it and inclined to it (Eccles. 7:20; Prov. 20:9; 1 Kings 8:46; Gal. 3:22; 1 John 1:8–10). 3. The whole man is defiled with sin and continually subject to it. (1) The understanding (1 Cor. 1:19, 20; 2:14). (2) The mind and conscience (Titus 1:15). It is stupid (1 Tim. 4:2), or else troubled. (3) The memory (2 Pet. 1:21). (4) The thoughts and the imagination (Gen. 6:5), which appears in their vanity and disorder. (5) The will and affections (John 1:13; Col. 3:2). (6) The body (1 Thess. 5:23). It is not now serviceable to the soul, but a clog to it; yet it tempts it to sin. 4. Hence our original sin is the corrupt fountain from which all our actual sins flow (James 1:14). Some relics of it remain in the best saints (Gal. 5:17). Conclusion: 1. This should make us humble (Job. 15:14–16). 2. Hence we should earnestly desire to be made new creatures; and go to Christ, the Second Adam, that we may be made righteous by Him, as we are sinners by the first. (Bp. Beveridge.)

One man’s obedience and its consequences:

  1. Who is this one spoken of? Note—1. All mankind being contained in, and so fallen with Adam, God raised up another Adam, by whom they might rise (1 Cor. 15:45). Who being promised, as soon as the first fell (Gen. 3:15) is called the Second Man (1 Cor. 15:47). 2. This was no less a Person than the Son of God made Man (John 1:14; 1 Tim. 3:16). For He took the nature of man into His Divine Person (Heb. 2:16). 3. Hence the whole nature of man was so fully and really contained in Him as in the first Adam (1 Cor. 15:22). 4. This, the Second Man, had an advantage over the first, that whereas the other was but a man made in the likeness of God, this was God made in the likeness of man (Phil. 2:6, 7).
  2. What was the obedience of this One? 1. He did no sin, was not guilty in the least (Isa. 53:9; 1 Pet. 2:22; 1 John 3:5; John 8:46). 2. He did whatsoever the law required, and so remained perfectly righteous in all things (Matt. 3:15; Heb. 7:26–28; John 15:10; 4:34). 3. He was obedient, even to death itself (Phil. 2:8); so He underwent that death which the first Adam had deserved for all mankind.

III. In what sense are many made righteous by One? In the same sense as they are sinners by one. 1. By having Christ’s righteousness as we had Adam’s sin imputed to us. (1) No man can be pronounced righteous by God, unless he be really so (Prov. 17:15; Isa. 5:23). (2) But no man is really righteous in himself (Eccles. 7:20). (3) Hence it is impossible we should be accepted as righteous before God, unless we have some other righteousness imputed to us (chap. 4:6, 11). (4) Hence Christ was pleased to be obedient even unto death for us; that so by His obedience imputed to us we might be accepted as righteous. For—(a) Our righteousness is plainly asserted to be only in Christ (2 Cor. 5:21). He was made sin for us. Our sins were laid on Him (Isa. 53:6); so His righteousness on us (Phil. 3:8, 9; Eph. 1:6). (b) He is expressly called “Our righteousness” (Jer. 23:6; 33:16; 1 Cor. 1:30). (c) He is called our Surety (Heb. 7:22), who, being bound for us, paid in our stead what the law required of us. (d) Christ’s whole obedience was only upon our account, and for our sakes (Gal. 4:4, 5); so that by His obedience the law is perfectly fulfilled in us (chap. 8:3, 4). 2. We are made righteous by Christ as sinners by Adam, inherently. He—(1) Mortifies our sins (1 John 3:8; Acts 3:26; 1 John 1:7–9). (2) Gives repentance (Acts 5:31). (3) Sanctifies our whole nature (1 Cor. 1:30; 6:11; Eph. 5:25–27). (4) Enables us to do good works (John 15:4, 5; Titus 2:14; Phil. 4:11–13). Conclusion: 1. Thank God for Christ. 2. Put your whole trust in Him only, for grace as well as pardon. 3. Let it be your great care to be in the number of those who are made righteous in Christ, in believing in Him. 4. Live as becometh righteous persons. (Ibid.)

Man’s first sin:—Is there a human being to be found who, after reflection, and speaking honestly, would affirm of himself, “I have never sinned”? We are aware of the existence of great ignorance concerning the extent of sin, and the evil of sin; and we know men are exceedingly reluctant to confess even those sins of which they are conscious; but we do not think there is a man who, after serious reflection, is entirely unconscious of guilt. Furthermore, is there a man who would say of a fellow human being, however dearly loved and highly prized, “I do not believe that person has ever sinned”? Verily, our consciousness and our observation confirm the Bible doctrine, “There is none that doeth good; no, not one!”

  1. The fact and the circumstances of man’s first sin. 1. The first sin was Adam’s failure under trial as the representative of the human race. Say that this test was simple; then how adapted to inexperience, and how fitted to show whether, in filial dependence, man would serve God or not. Do you refuse to judge of the quarter whence the wind blows by the course of the thistle-down, or by the path of the smoke; and would you wait for information until you could see the vane of some lofty tower? Do you not measure the heat of a summer’s day by the moistened brow, and judge of the cold of winter by the smarting skin, far more frequently than by the scale of the thermometer? 2. Man was specially tempted to the first sin. 3. Temptation was necessary in man’s probation. Could probation be conducted apart from this trying process? Is not the coin tested in the balance? Is not silver proved in the fining pot? Is not gold tried in the furnace? Are not the elements of a chemical compound made manifest by analysis? Is not the strength of metal or timber relied upon after proof? As in our law courts, no prisoner is recognised as guilty until his crime has been proved; so, in God’s moral government, no procedure is based on character until the character is made manifest by the light of conduct. 4. The first sin of man was (tested by any standard) a great transgression. Actions must be judged by the principle involved in them. In eating the forbidden fruit did not Adam transgress a law? In transgressing this law did not Adam reject the Divine authority and cast off his allegiance to God? In thus sinning did not Adam resist the power of the strongest motives on the side of obedience?—motives arising from his obligations to the kindness of God; motives connected with the full and flowing fountains of pleasure and of advantage by which he was encompassed; and from the fact that he was being proved, and that upon his conduct were suspended tremendous results? Moreover the image of God was within him—revelations of God surrounded him; and under the power of these multiplied motives and influences his attention was fixed on one defined, intelligible, and distinct requirement. It was not an easy thing for Adam to sin against God. (1) Observe that human nature, at its best state, is not to be trusted; and that it universally fails where the failure is of most consequence. (2) See the tremendous responsibility which our influence over each other involves. (3) Learn the utility of experience in the trial of temptation. (4) Look, by the aid of the facts we are considering, into the philosophy of sinning.
  2. The results of man’s first sin. Trace them in the transgressors themselves. We know not what interval existed between the evil act and a sense of its iniquity. Delusion may have continued through some time. At length, however, an inward monitor gave notice of the fault; disapprobation and self-condemnation, with their keen smart, succeeded; and Adam tasted the bitterness of sin. 1. Learn hence the enormous evil of any one sin; and profit in this department of knowledge by the experience of others. 2. Know also the certainty of punishment where pardon is not vouchsafed. 3. Mark the limit of Divine interference with human conduct. (S. Martin.)

Man’s disobedience and Christ’s obedience:

  1. Man’s disobedience. 1. Its consequences. 2. Perpetration. 3. Extent.
  2. Christ’s obedience. 1. Its nature. 2. Operation. 3. Result. (J. Lyth, D.D.)

The condition of man a sinner and man made righteous contrasted:—1. Unbelief and faith. 2. Enmity and love. 3. Banishment from God and acceptance with God. 4. Disobedience and righteousness. 5. Misery and bliss. 6. Curse and blessing. 7. Death and life. 8. Paradise lost and paradise regained. (D. MNicoll.)

Of our fall in Adam:—Consider—1. Who that one man was. Adam (ver. 14). 2. What his disobedience was. His first sin, the eating of the forbidden fruit, which opened the door to death (ver. 12). 3. Whom it concerned; “many”; the “all” (ver. 14). The alteration is not without reason, for there is an exception here of Christ. It reached many men, but not all simply; he, and he only, was excepted. 4. How it touched them; they were “made sinners” by it. There are two ways how men might be made sinners by the disobedience of Adam, viz., either by imputation or imitation. The last is not meant. (1) Because some of those many who are made sinners are not capable of imitation or actual sin, viz., infants. (2) Because we are made righteous, not by the imitation, but imputation of Christ’s righteousness; but as we are made righteous by the one, so we are made sinners by the other.

  1. What sin of Adam’s it was that they who sinned and fell with him, sinned and fell in. His first sin, the eating of the forbidden fruit. This was the sin that broke the covenant of works. Other sins of Adam are not imputed to them, more than those of any other private persons. So then, Adam quickly betaking himself to the covenant of grace, and placing himself under another head as a private man, ceased to be the head in the covenant of works. Adam had all his children in one ship to carry them to Immanuel’s land; by his negligence he dashed the ship on a rock, and broke it all in pieces; and so he and his lay foundering in a sea of guilt. Jesus Christ lets out the second covenant as a rope to draw them to the shore. Adam for himself lays hold on it, while others hold by the broken boards of the ship, till they be by the power of grace enabled to quit them too, as he was.
  2. Who were they that sinned and fell in Adam. All mankind, descending from him by ordinary generation. So—1. Christ is excepted. Adam’s sin was not imputed to the man Christ. He was separated from sinners (Heb. 7:26), and was not infected with the plague whereof He was to be the cleanser. And so Christ comes not in under Adam as head, but, as in the text, is opposed to Adam as another head. Christ was indeed a Son of Adam (Luke 3) And it was necessary He should be so, that He might be our near kinsman, and that the same nature that sinned might suffer. But He came not of him by ordinary generation—He was born of a virgin. And upon this account He came not in under Adam in the covenant of works; for Christ was not born by virtue of that blessing of marriage given before the fall (Gen. 1:28), but by virtue of a covenant-promise made after the fall (Gen. 3:15). So that Adam could represent none in that covenant, but such as were to spring from him by virtue of that blessing. 2. All mankind besides sinned and fell with Adam in that first transgression. His sin of eating the forbidden fruit is imputed to them. Consider—(1) The Scripture plainly testifies that all sinned in him (ver. 12). Hence it is plain that death has not come into the world but in pursuit of sin; all die, for all have sinned. (2) All fell with him into misery by that sin. Now, a just God will not involve the innocent with the guilty in the same punishment. (a) All fell under condemnation (vers. 16, 18). (b) All fell under the loss of God’s image, and the corruption of nature with him (Psa. 51:5). (c) All the punishments inflicted on Adam and Eve, for that sin, as specified in Gen. 3, are common to mankind, their posterity; and therefore the sin must be so too.

III. How the first sin of Adam comes to be imputed to us. The great reason of this is, because we are all included in Adam’s covenant. The covenant was made with him, not only for himself, but for all his posterity. 1. Consider here—(1) It was the covenant of works, the condition whereof was perfect obedience. (2) It was made with Adam for himself. That was the way he himself was to attain perfect happiness; his own stock was in that ship. (3) It was made not only for himself, but for all his posterity descending from him by ordinary generation. So that he was not here as a private, but as a public person, the moral head and representative of all mankind. Hence the Scripture holds forth Adam and Christ, as if there had never been any but these two men in the world (1 Cor. 15:47). And this he does, because they were two public persons, each of them having under them persons represented by them (vers. 14, 18). 2. But some may be ready to say, we made not choice of Adam for that purpose. Answer—(1) God made the choice, who was as meet to make it for us as we for ourselves. And “who art thou that repliest against God?” (2) Adam was our natural head, the common father of as all (Acts 17:26), and who was so meet to be trusted with the concerns of all mankind as he? 3. But to clear further the reasonableness of this imputation, consider—(1) Adam’s sin is imputed to us, because it is ours. For God doth not reckon a thing ours, which is not so (chap. 2:2). If a person that has the plague infect others, and they die, they die, by their own plague, and not by that of another. (2) It was free for God either to have annihilated all mankind, or to have given them no promise of eternal life. Was it not, then, an act of grace in God to make such a rich covenant as this? and would not men have consented to this representation gladly in this case? (3) Adam being made after the image of God (Gen. 1:26) was as capable to stand as any afterwards could be for themselves; and this was a trial that would soon have been over, while the other would have been continually a-doing, had men been created independent of him. (4) He had natural affection the strongest to engage him. He was our father, and all we the children that were in his loins, to whom we had as good ground to trust as to any other creature. (5) His own stuck was in the ship; his all lay at stake as well as ours. Forgetting our interest, he behoved to disregard his own, for he had no separate interest from ours. No man quarrels, that when a master sets his land in tack to a man and his heirs upon conditions, if the first possessor break the bargain, the heirs be denuded of it. (6) All that quarrel with this dispensation must renounce their part in Christ; for we are made righteous by Him, as sinners are made guilty by Adam. If we fall in with the one, why not with the other? We chose Christ for our head in the second covenant no more than we did Adam in the first covenant.

  1. Inferences. 1. See the dreadful nature of sin; one sin could destroy a world. 2. Let this be a lesson to parents to do nothing that may bring ruin on their children. Many times children are destroyed by their parents through their bad example and government. 3. This doctrine affords a lesson of humility to all. The rich have no cause to boast of their wealth, for they have as sad a heritage as the poor and needy. 4. View and wonder at the redemption purchased for sinners by Christ. 5. Quit your hold of the first Adam and his covenant, and come to and unite with Christ by faith, and lay hold on His covenant (1 Cor. 15:22). (T. Boston, D.D.)

The fall and the atonement:—These are the two main facts involved in the text. Round these there has gathered a vast cloud of theological formulas which render it difficult to discern them in their simplicity and integrity. I have a few suggestions to make, which are simple and hang well together. 1. We can hardly begin to reflect on the fall without asking, “Why did God permit it? why make man so that he not only could, but almost must, fall away from his original righteousness?” The very moment we begin to reflect on the fall we are confronted by the origin of evil. Why did God permit it to invade and stain His universe? 2. So, again, with that other fact, “How could the obedience, or sacrifice, of the one just Man avail for the salvation of the whole sinful race? How is it so to tell on those who have fallen from righteousness as to recover them to the love and service of righteousness? To tell us that these problems are insoluble is to contradict the inspired apostle. To warn us against intermeddling with them is to pour contempt on the labours of eighteen centuries. And, worse still, it is to bid us suppress an inbred and unconquerable tendency, viz., that when we believe certain facts we cannot but try to frame some reasonable conception of them, in which each shall hold its due place and form part of an intelligible and harmonious whole.

  1. The fall. 1. We start from a point familiar and approved. (1) If God were to surround Himself, not with mere automata that would mechanically obey the impulses of His will, but with creatures capable of love and obedience. He must give them wills of their own and leave them free. A mechanical or compelled goodness is not a goodness at all. If the angels are incapable of sin they are also incapable of righteousness. If they are not free to choose between good and evil, but are kept by the power and will of God, then their goodness is God’s goodness, and not their own. If the stars keep their courses only by an involuntary and unconscious obedience to natural laws, there is nothing noble, because there is nothing free, in their obedience. But if, as some of our poets have dreamed, each “heavenly body” is but the vesture of some great spirit, then the very stars become moral, because voluntary, agents, who render a willing and constant obedience to the laws imposed upon them. 2. Now, what the choice of God would be we may infer from our own preference. Just as we prefer to have even a dog about us to all the mechanical toys ever invented: or just as we love to have children about us whose love we can win, who are capable of a true because voluntary goodness, so we may reasonably believe God would choose to surround Himself with many orders of creatures, each capable of loving Him of its own will, and of rendering Him a free and glad obedience. 3. But this very capacity involves an alternative. Those who can freely lift their wills into accord with the will of God, can also deflect their wills from His. And was it not well-nigh inevitable that, in the infinite possibilities of existence, some of them should strike out a path for themselves, and take that rather than keep the path marked out for them by God? How else were they to prove to themselves that their wills were their own, and free? 4. This free will, if a great is also a most perilous endowment; for there is a certain charm in asserting it. It is not mere depravity which prompts a child to do that which he knows he ought not to do. The temptation, although he may be unconscious of it, is the charm of assuring himself and showing others that he is free, that he is not a mere link in the chain of necessity, not a mere pipe in the fingers of others to sound what stop they please. Who has not felt this fascination, and done that which he knew would yield him neither pleasure nor profit, simply in order that he might feel and assert his freedom? And who that has felt this charm can doubt that when myriads of creatures had been called into being gifted with free will, some of them would be sure to prove their freedom by trying whether or not their wills were their own? 5. Our argument leads us straight into that great mystery—the origin of evil. Evil is in the world, in the universe, by no Divine fiat or decree. It is not of God’s making, but of our own. And from this gift of a will free to select its own path and take its own course have sprung all the miseries of evil. What God intended for our good, as our special honour and distinction, we have turned to our own harm. But before any man complains that so perilous a gift has been conferred upon him, and that he is called to rule and control it, let him remember the alternative—incapability of conscious and voluntary choice of righteousness and love. If any man would prefer to sink so low as that, it certainly is hard to see what God made him a man for. But does any such man exist?
  2. Its consequences. When men, in the exercise of their free will, have fallen into sin, they begin to make excuse. They say, “It is human to err. Sin is common to all; how, then, can I hope to escape it?” This is one of the saddest consequences. 2. Men condemn even while they excuse themselves. All the while they feel that sin has alienated them from the life of God; that He is displeased with them; that they are debased; and that God must be propitiated. And thus men are made both reckless and hopeless. On the one hand, sin seems so human, so inevitable, that it can hardly be very wrong; and, on the other hand, it is so alien to God that He can hardly be expected to pardon it.

III. From these consequences we get some of our best and simplest conceptions of redemption. 1. What is the answer of the Divine grace to the feeling of doubt and despair? It is this. While we are yet sinners, God, in the person of His Son, comes down and dwells among us. He virtually says to us, “See, much as I hate the sins which have degraded and enslaved you, fellowship with Me is not impossible. I am in your midst to bless you by turning every one of you away from your sins. So far from being separated from you, I have become one with you, that you may become one with Me, partaking your nature that you may partake Mine.” 2. Men say, “It is human to sin; so long as we are men we can hardly hope to avoid it.” “Nay,” replies Christ; “for, see, I, too, am a man; and which of you convicteth Me of sin? So far from sin being an essential part of manhood, or a necessary adjunct of it, you feel that I am a higher style of man, precisely because I never at any time transgressed My Father’s commandments, because I make it My will to do His will.” This, then, is a chief way in which the redemption of Christ comes to tell on men, in which they are atoned to the God against whom they have sinned. Our wills are ours, then; but they are ours that we may make them His. And not till we do make them His shall we be recovered from the fall, and know the power of His redemption. (S. Cox, D.D.)

The Lord our righteousness:

  1. The obedience of Christ. 1. Personally and privately, in regard to His own moral character. He fulfilled all righteousness. He alone, of all the human race, has maintained from first to last a perfectly spotless character before the tribunal of God. 2. Officially, Christ’s obedience was equally perfect. He came into the world to fulfil a public mission, as the Lord’s servant, and at the close it was not necessary for Him to bewail shortcomings or to avow Himself an unprofitable servant (John 17:4). Nor was His an easy task. He needed more meekness than Moses, more wisdom than Solomon, more watchfulness than Isaiah, and more courage than Daniel. Yet never in all His public course did He betray an unworthy spirit or act unwisely. No doing or saying of His requires to be covered with the cloak of charity. 3. As a sacrificial victim for sin, we find Christ equally obedient. He received this commandment from the Father, that He should lay down His life for His sheep. This He was to do by surrendering Himself into the hands of wicked men. He might have refused and have consumed His enemies. He might have come down even from the Cross, and declined to shed His heart’s best blood for such a thankless race; but no, He submitted to it all without a murmur. His own language was, “The cup which My Father hath given Me, shall I not drink it?” (cf. Isa. 53:4–6, 10; Phil. 2:8; Heb. 2:10).
  2. The way is which we are made righteous by this obedience. 1. By the eternal purpose of God Himself. He gave His Son to achieve such mighty results for us, and He accepts us in the Beloved, and imputes to us a righteousness, which is purely of grace, and through faith in Christ. “The Lord hath laid on Him the iniquity of us all.” 2. The ground of this imputation, undoubtedly, is the perfect obedience of Christ, our Head; and the principle of it is, that, because of our union with Christ, what belongs to Him comes to be regarded as belonging to us. He takes our sins, that we may take His righteousness. 3. Yet, in looking at Christ’s obedience as the ground of our righteousness, we must view it as a whole. We cannot say that one part of the blessing we derive from Christ is to be ascribed to His sinless life, and another to His vicarious suffering. We take a whole Christ as a whole Saviour. 4. Yet in this gift of righteousness we find these three blessings. (1) Pardon. This we have in Christ’s obedience unto death. That death owes its merits to His preceding spotless life. (2) Holiness. This relates to the present, as pardon to the past, and we owe it to Christ’s holy life, setting us an example; to His mediatorial labours, teaching us the law; and to His sacrificial death, constraining our love, and procuring for us the Spirit, by whose indwelling we are quickened, renewed, changed into the Divine likeness, and enabled to walk as becometh saints. (3) Heaven. This relates to the future. Even if we were pardoned, and made holy, we could by no means earn for ourselves a title to glory. It is God’s free gift: bestowed upon us only for the sake of the perfect obedience of Christ, who hath purchased this inheritance, and secured it for us. It is He who both washes us from our sins and makes us kings and priests unto God and His Father for ever. Conclusion: 1. Behold, then, the Scripture doctrine of substitution, which ascribes our salvation, not to our own obedience, but to the obedience of Christ. This is—(1) A conceivable arrangement: it is in harmony with equity and justice, provided only that the substituted victim of suffering be a voluntary one, and that he be not a permanent loser by what he endures. (2) An arrangement, analogous to much that we see in nature and providence, and especially to the hereditary law of association, which obtains among all mankind. (3) Necessity. For without it no member of our fallen race could ever have risen to holiness and happiness at all. (4) An accomplished reality, for Christ hath actually suffered for our sins, once for all, and put them away by the sacrifice of Himself (Heb. 9:26–28). 2. A few practical inferences. (1) Christian believer, see your dependence on Jesus, and rejoice in it. Cultivate a simple and confiding faith in Him, and believe that if your salvation be the reward of His obedience, there is no limit to what God is able and willing to do for you. (2) Penitent inquirer, behold the way of righteousness, and walk in it. Come, as a sinner, to the throne of grace; and ceasing from your own works, enter by faith into spiritual rest. (3) Ye unconverted, we point you to the Cross. There see what sin has done. Reflect, repent, return unto the Lord, for He will have mercy upon you, and to our God, for He will abundantly pardon. (T. G, Horton.)

The mechanism of heredity:—Why should children, born with tainted constitutions and damaged prospects, suffer blamelessly for their father’s iniquity? Precisely as, on the contrary, children benefit gratuitously through the goodness of their parent. For the marvellous mechanism of heredity does not merely transmit evil. It is also, and indeed preponderantly, the machinery by which the physical, mental, and spiritual acquisitions of bygone generations—the accumulated and stored wealth of the ages—are conveyed to the future and preserved for posterity. There is an inheritance of strength and intellect, grace and goodness, as well as of disease and vice and evil. Nay, this last is but a misuse and perversion of God’s beneficent and stupendous contrivance of heredity. To escape the entail of ill, you must snap the mechanism of transmission, and so forfeit the entail of blessing. It is as if you should propose that each generation’s acquisition of property, tools, inventions, arts, and appliances should be destroyed, and the next generation compelled to begin afresh on the bare, barren soil. Progress were impossible, civilisation but the rolling of a Sisyphus’ stone, the human race no longer an organic unity, without continuity, without history, without moral solidarity. Take from my life and actions this awful prerogative of the transmission of good and evil, and you rob it of all dignity and depth of perspective; you degrade it to the narrowest dimensions of self-centred insignificance; you divest my actions of all far-reaching influence and unselfish consequence; you isolate my being from all impersonal interests and ennobling sympathies. Cut asunder the fine meshes of heredity, and you dissolve the ties of affection that bind the generations together, and reduce humanity to a chaos of trivial atoms, without roots in the past, without part in futurity, devoid of large possibilities of achievement, and therefore destitute of strong moral motive. Heredity ordained by Heaven for blessing, through sin becomes a vehicle of evil. (Prof. Elmslie, D.D.)[8]

19. As by one man’s disobedience many were made sinners, so by one man’s obedience many will be made righteous. As in verse 15, the twofold ‘many’ is literally ‘the many’. The second clause here is probably a deliberate echo of Isaiah 53:11, where the obedient Servant causes the many (MT, lxx) ‘to be accounted righteous’. From the second clause, ‘the many’ is introduced into the first clause by way of balance (and the influence of Isaiah 53:11 may also be present in the twofold ‘the many’ of verse 15). ‘O the sweet exchange, O the inscrutable creation, O the unlooked-for benefits, that the sin of many should be put out of sight in one righteous man, and the righteousness of one should justify many sinners!’ (Epistle to Diognetus 9.5). The obedience of Christ accomplished more than Abraham’s could ever have done; by his passion and triumph he has won the right and power to beat back the hostile cosmic forces—to ‘retrieve the cosmic situation’, as C. K. Barrett puts it—and ensure for his people participation in his victory.[9]

19. This is no tautology, but a necessary explanation of the former verse. For he shows that we are guilty through the offence of one man, in such a manner as not to be ourselves innocent. He had said before, that we are condemned; but that no one might claim for himself innocency, he also subjoined, that every one is condemned because he is a sinner. And then, as he declares that we are made righteous through the obedience of Christ, we hence conclude that Christ, in satisfying the Father, has provided a righteousness for us. It then follows, that righteousness is in Christ, and that it is to be received by us as what peculiarly belongs to him. He at the same time shows what sort of righteousness it is, by calling it obedience. And here let us especially observe what we must bring into God’s presence, if we seek to be justified by works, even obedience to the law, not to this or to that part, but in every respect perfect; for when a just man falls, all his former righteousness will not be remembered. We may also hence learn, how false are the schemes which they take to pacify God, who of themselves devise what they obtrude on him. For then only we truly worship him when we follow what he has commanded us, and render obedience to his word. Away then with those who confidently lay claim to the righteousness of works, which cannot otherwise exist than when there is a full and complete observance of the law; and it is certain that this is nowhere to be found. We also learn, that they are madly foolish who vaunt before God of works invented by themselves, which he regards as the filthiest things; for obedience is better than sacrifices.[10]

5:19 many will be made righteous. Ancient Judaism harbored the illusion that obeying the Torah would make one righteous, and Paul counters that the mere attempt to obey the Torah makes one a sinner because that effort is itself an act of hubris in the light of the advent of the gospel. Rather, faith in Christ is the divinely prescribed means for becoming righteous. The reference to Christ’s obedience no doubt refers to his death on the cross (cf. Phil. 2:8) rather than to his obedient life as a whole. This is because Paul alludes to Isaiah 53:11 in 5:19. The Suffering Servant made “many” righteous by his death, just as Christ did by his death.[11]

19 In case we have missed his main point, Paul reiterates it in this verse, using the same basic structure as in v. 18 but with different language. In contrast to the “all people” of v. 18, Paul denotes those who are affected by the acts of Adam and Christ by “the many” (as in v. 15). Two other differences are more important, suggesting that v. 19 is not just the repetition of v. 18, but its elaboration.

(1) Paul calls Adam’s destiny-determining action an “act of disobedience” (parakoē) rather than simply a “sin” (v. 12) or “trespass” (vv. 15, 17, 18). The characterization is, of course, a fair one since Adam and Eve had been explicitly told not to eat the fruit of the tree. In keeping with the careful contrasts that Paul has used throughout the passage, then, Christ’s work is characterized as “an act of obedience” (hypakoē). Paul may be thinking of the “active obedience” of Christ, his lifelong commitment to do his Father’s will and so fulfill the demands of the law. But Paul’s focus seems rather to be on Jesus’ death as the ultimate act of obedience. This is suggested by the parallel with Adam’s (one) act of disobedience. Note also the language of Phil. 2:8—Jesus “became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross”—and the consistent connection Paul makes between justification and Jesus’ death.

(2) As Paul chooses different language to characterize the era-initiating acts of Adam and Christ, so he also uses different language to describe the results of their respective acts. Rather than states, or destinies (death/life, condemnation/justification), Paul now describes these results in more personal categories: through Adam, the many “were made sinners”; through Christ, they “will be made righteous [people].” The verb that Paul uses in both phrases (kathistēmi) has a forensic flavor, often meaning “appoint.” Here it refers to the fact that people are “inaugurated into” the state of sin/righteousness. Paul is insisting that people were really “made” sinners through Adam’s act of disobedience just as they are really “made righteous” through Christ’s obedience. But this “making righteous,” in light of the focus throughout this text on one’s state or position, means not to become “morally righteous” people but to become “judicially righteous”—to be judged acquitted, cleared of all charges.281 The future tense of “made righteous” may suggest that Paul is here thinking of the final aspect of justification, the verdict rendered on the day of judgment.

In both parts of the verse, then, we are dealing with a real, though forensic, situation: people actually become sinners in solidarity with Adam—by God’s decision; people actually become “righteous” in solidarity with Christ—again, by God’s decision. But there is one important difference, plainly hinted at in the emphasis on grace throughout vv. 15–17: while our solidarity with Adam in condemnation is due to our solidarity with him in sinning, our solidarity with Christ in righteousness is not because we have acted righteously in and with Christ. While Rom. 6 suggests that we were in some sense “in Christ” when he “obeyed even unto death,” that obedience is never accounted to us as our own. In other words, while we deserve condemnation—for “all have sinned”—we are freely given righteousness and life. It is this gratuitous element on the side of Christ’s work that enables Paul to celebrate the “how much more” of our reigning in life (v. 17) and that gives to every believer absolute assurance for the life to come.[12]

19 Verse 19 is confirmatory and explicatory of verse 18. This is apparent not only from the construction and content of verse 19 but also from the way in which they are related; verse 19 begins with “for”. “For as through the disobedience of the one man the many were constituted sinners, even so through the obedience of the one the many will be constituted righteous.” We have here again a completed comparison after the pattern of verse 18. Though the doctrine is substantially the same, new facets of this doctrine are set forth.

(1) “The disobedience of the one man.” The sin of Adam is characterized as transgression (vs. 14), as trespass (vss. 15, 17, 18), now as disobedience. Each term possesses its own emphasis and indicates that the fall of Adam was regarded by the apostle as sin in all the respects in which sin may be defined.

(2) “The many were constituted sinners.” In the preceding verses we found that death passed on to all men by reason of the sin of Adam (vss. 12, 14, 15, 17). We found also that condemnation was pronounced upon all men through the sin of Adam (vss. 16, 18). Implicit in these reiterated declarations is the solidarity that existed between Adam and posterity. It would have been a necessary inference from the solidarity in death and condemnation to posit a solidarity in sin also, because death and condemnation presuppose sin. But we are not left to inference. The apostle is now explicit to the effect that the solidarity extended to sin itself. We discovered earlier that the only feasible way of interpreting the clause in verse 12, “in that all sinned” is that this refers to the involvement of all in the sin of Adam. But again the propriety of that interpretation is demonstrated by what is now said expressly in verse 19, “through the disobedience of the one man the many were constituted sinners”. The expression used here “constituted sinners” is definitely to the effect that the many were made to be sinners, they were placed in the category of sinners. Not only did death rule over them, not only did they come under the sentence of condemnation, but sinnership itself became theirs by reason of the sin of Adam. It is here again that the variety of terms which the apostle uses to characterize sin becomes eloquent of what is meant by being constituted sinners. Sin is transgression, trespass, disobedience, and therefore solidarity in sin is involvement in the disobedience, transgression, trespass of Adam. The last clause of verse 12 likewise can mean nothing less, for it says “all sinned”. By a confluence of considerations inherent in this passage we are informed that the sin of Adam was the sin of all and the solidarity in condemnation and death is traced to its source and ground, solidarity in sin. To attempt to escape from this conclusion is to waive exegesis.

(3) “Through the obedience of the one.” This is parallel to “through one righteous act” in verse 18 and there can be no doubt but it refers to the obedience of Christ. Even if doubt should persist as to the import of the “righteous act” in verse 18 there can be no doubt in verse 19. The obedience of Christ is stated to be that through which the many are constituted righteous. The concept of obedience as applied to the work of Christ on behalf of believers is more embracive than any other (cf. Isa. 42:1; 52:13–53:12; John 6:38, 39; 10:17, 18; 17:4, 5; Gal. 4:4; Phil. 2:7, 8; Heb. 2:10; 5:8, 9). It is significant that it should be used here. It indicates the broad perspective from which we must view that accomplishment of Christ which constitutes the basis of God’s justifying act. Undoubtedly it was in the cross of Christ and the shedding of his blood that this obedience came to its climactic expression, but obedience comprehends the totality of the Father’s will as fulfilled by Christ. And this brings into the clearest focus what was implied in “the grace of the one man Jesus Christ” (vs. 15), “through the one, Jesus Christ” (vs. 17), and “through the one righteous act” (vs. 18).

(4) “The many will be constituted righteous.” The notion of being constituted righteous cannot be in a different category from the “justification” of verse 16 or “the free gift of righteousness” of verse 17 (cf. vss. 15, 16) or the “justification of life” of verse 18. We could not suppose that at this climactic point in his argument the apostle had introduced a category extraneous to the foregoing context or to his main thesis up to this point. This is to say that “constituted righteous” has the same forensic character as justification and must be a variant mode of expression. This consideration gives us the direction in which we are to interpret the antithetic expression, “constituted sinners”. While we must not tone down the latter so as to eliminate our involvement in the sin, transgression, trespass, disobedience of Adam, yet this involvement must be interpreted in forensic terms. Our involvement cannot be that of personal voluntary transgression on our part. It can only be that of imputation, that by reason of representative unity the sin of Adam is reckoned to our account and therefore reckoned as ours with all the entail of implication and consequence which sin carries with it. In the judicial judgment of God the sin of Adam is the sin of all.

Though the expression “constituted righteous” belongs strictly to the forensic sphere, yet we must not overlook the distinctive aspect from which justification is viewed in the use of this formula. Justification is a constitutive act, not barely declarative. And this constitutive act consists in our being placed in the category of righteous persons by reason of our relation to Christ. The same principle of solidarity that appears in our relation to Adam, and by reason of which we are involved in his sin, obtains in our relation to Christ. And just as the relation to Adam means the imputation to us of his disobedience, so the relation to Christ means the imputation to us of his obedience. Justification means our involvement in the obedience of Christ in terms of the same principle by which we are involved in Adam’s sin. Nothing less is demanded by the analogy instituted in this verse. Again, the involvement in the obedience of Christ is not that of our personal voluntary obedience nor that of our subjective holiness. This would violate the forensic character of the justification with which the apostle is dealing. But we must not tone down the formula “constituted righteous” to any lower terms than the gracious judgment on God’s part whereby the obedience of Christ is reckoned to our account and therefore reckoned as ours with all the entail of consequence which righteousness carries with it. This interprets for us “the free gift of righteousness” (vs. 17) of which believers become the recipients and also how “through the one righteous act” judgment comes upon them “unto justification of life” (vs. 18).

The future tense in “will be constituted righteous” must not be taken as referring to an act that is reserved for the consummation. This would violate the nature of justification as a free gift received by believers here and now in its completeness and perfection. The future tense can well be used to indicate that this act of God’s grace is being continually exercised and will continue to be exercised throughout future generations of mankind.36 In this respect it differs from the judgment by which men were constituted sinners; the latter was a judgment that passed upon all men once for all in the identification of the whole race with Adam in his sin. The change of tense intimates the progressive realization of the fruits of Christ’s obedience through the ever-continuing acts of grace in justifying the ungodly.[13]

19 Another term for Adam’s failure occurs in v. 19, namely, “disobedience” (parakoē, GK 4157). This word accents the voluntary character of his sin. Matching it is the “obedience” (hypakoē, GK 5633) of Christ (see esp. Php 2:8). This concept was highly meaningful for Paul, as we know from Philippians 2:5–11. The interpretation of that passage along the lines of a latent comparison between Adam (unnamed, but in the background) and Christ is most satisfactory. Instead of grasping after equality with God, as Adam had done, Jesus humbled himself and became obedient, even to the point of accepting death on a cross.

The result of Christ’s obedience is that “the many will be made righteous.” Does this refer to righteous character? Possibly so, if the future tense is definitely eschatological in its thrust, pointing to the consummation in glory, when imputed righteousness will have become righteousness possessed in unblemished fullness. But “will be made righteous” may simply be the equivalent of “will become righteous” in the forensic sense, as in 2 Corinthians 5:21, in which case the future tense need not be thought of as eschatological but as embracing all who in this age are granted justification. Most of these were indeed future to Paul’s time. Paul’s thought has not shifted away from the forensic.

Does the sweeping language used (“the many” being equivalent to “all,” as argued above) suggest that all humanity will be brought within the circle of justification, so that none will be lost? Some have thought so; the language sounds that way. But if the doctrine of universalism were being taught here, Paul would be contradicting himself, for he has already pictured some as perishing because of sin (2:12; cf. 1 Co 1:18). Furthermore, his entire presentation of salvation has emphasized the fact that justification is granted only on the basis of faith. Note the implied reference to faith in the words “those who receive God’s abundant provision of grace” (v. 17). We must conclude, therefore, that only as “the many” are found in Christ can they qualify as belonging to the righteous. When it comes to describing the saving work of Christ, however, Paul does not shy away from universal language. Rather, he must portray it in absolute terms and with the broadest strokes. In principle, de jure, Christ’s obedience—his atoning death on the cross—can only be thought of as outstripping the effects of Adam’s disobedience. Paul would not be amenable to language that described the work of Christ as a “limited atonement.”[14]

[1] Patterson, P. (2017). Salvation in the Old Testament. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1789). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

[2] Barry, J. D., Mangum, D., Brown, D. R., Heiser, M. S., Custis, M., Ritzema, E., … Bomar, D. (2012, 2016). Faithlife Study Bible (Ro 5:19). Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press.

[3] Crossway Bibles. (2008). The ESV Study Bible (p. 2166). Wheaton, IL: Crossway Bibles.

[4] MacArthur, J. F., Jr. (2006). The MacArthur study Bible: New American Standard Bible. (Ro 5:19). Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers.

[5] Radmacher, E. D., Allen, R. B., & House, H. W. (1999). Nelson’s new illustrated Bible commentary (p. 1433). Nashville: T. Nelson Publishers.

[6] MacDonald, W. (1995). Believer’s Bible Commentary: Old and New Testaments. (A. Farstad, Ed.) (p. 1699). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

[7] Utley, R. J. (1998). The Gospel according to Paul: Romans (Vol. Volume 5, Ro 5:19). Marshall, Texas: Bible Lessons International.

[8] Exell, J. S. (n.d.). The Biblical Illustrator: Romans (Vol. 1, pp. 425–431). New York; Chicago; Toronto; London; Edinburgh: Fleming H. Revell Company.

[9] Bruce, F. F. (1985). Romans: an introduction and commentary (Vol. 6, p. 136). Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.

[10] Calvin, J., & Owen, J. (2010). Commentary on the Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Romans (pp. 212–213). Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software.

[11] Pate, C. M. (2013). Romans. (M. L. Strauss & J. H. Walton, Eds.) (p. 131). Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books.

[12] Moo, D. J. (2018). The Letter to the Romans. (N. B. Stonehouse, F. F. Bruce, G. D. Fee, & J. B. Green, Eds.) (Second Edition, pp. 371–372). Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.

[13] Murray, J. (1968). The Epistle to the Romans (Vol. 1, pp. 203–206). Grand Rapids, MI; Cambridge, U.K.: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.

[14] Harrison, E. F., & Hagner, D. A. (2008). Romans. In T. Longman III &. Garland, David E. (Ed.), The Expositor’s Bible Commentary: Romans–Galatians (Revised Edition) (Vol. 11, pp. 99–100). Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

February 18 Afternoon Quotes of The Day

One Lamb Worrying Another
2 Corinthians 12:20; Galatians 5:19–21

Discord and division become no Christian. For wolves to worry the lambs, is no wonder; but for one lamb to worry another, this is unnatural and monstrous.


Ritzema, E. (Ed.). (2012). 300 Quotations for Preachers. Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press.

A Stricter Rule Often Leads to Contentment
Matthew 16:24; Mark 8:34; Luke 9:23; Romans 13:13; 1 Corinthians 9:24–27; 1 Peter 2:11

The trial of a Rule somewhat more strict often suffices to calm unquiet spirits who are not content with the kind of life that they are living.


Ritzema, E., & Brant, R. (Eds.). (2013). 300 quotations for preachers from the Medieval church. Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press.

40 Days to the Cross: Week of Ash Wednesday – Thursday

Confession: Psalm 51:5–8

Behold, in iniquity I was born,

and in sin my mother conceived me.

Behold, you delight in truth in the inward parts,

and in the hidden parts you make me to know wisdom.

Purify me with hyssop, and I shall be clean.

Wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow.

Make me hear joy and gladness;

let the bones you have crushed rejoice.

Reading: Mark 8:34–9:1

And summoning the crowd together with his disciples, he said to them, “If anyone wants to come after me, let him deny himself and take up his cross and follow me. For whoever wants to save his life will lose it, but whoever loses his life on account of me and of the gospel will save it. For what does it benefit a person to gain the whole world and forfeit his life? For what can a person give in exchange for his life? For whoever is ashamed of me and my words in this adulterous and sinful generation, the Son of Man will also be ashamed of him when he comes in the glory of his Father with the holy angels.”

And he said to them, “Truly I say to you, that there are some of those standing here who will never experience death until they see the kingdom of God having come with power.”


Some are saying, Oh that the world was crucified to me and I to the world! Oh that my heart were as dead as a stone to the world and alive to Jesus! Do you truly wish it? Look, then, to the cross. Behold the amazing gift of love.… Sit down like Mary, and gaze upon a crucified Jesus. Then will the world become a dim and dying thing. When you gaze upon the sun, it makes everything else dark; when you taste honey, it makes everything else tasteless; so when your soul feeds on Jesus, it takes away the sweetness of all earthly things—praise, pleasure, and fleshly lusts all lose their sweetness. Keep a continued gaze. Run, looking unto Jesus. Look, till the way of salvation by Jesus fills up the whole horizon, so glorious and peace-speaking. Then will the world be crucified to you, and you unto the world.

—Robert McCheyne

Glorifying in the Cross


Has the cross changed the desires of your heart? During the season of Lent, many choose to fast or refrain from certain practices. If you have done so, are you focusing your gaze upon the cross?[1]

[1] Van Noord, R., & Strong, J. (Eds.). (2014). 40 Days to the Cross: Reflections from Great Thinkers. Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press.

Trump slams ‘mentally gone’ Biden over vaccines, won’t rule out 2024 run

Former President Donald Trump blasted President Biden for claiming that he left the White House with “no vaccine” — suggesting his successor is “mentally gone” late Wednesday as he refused to rule out a 2024 presidential run. Speaking to Newsmax, Trump made the remarks after being asked if he had seen Biden’s CNN town hall…

Source: Trump slams ‘mentally gone’ Biden over vaccines, won’t rule out 2024 run

Where’s Biden? VP Harris takes solo calls with foreign leaders; staff runs meetings | WashingtonTimes.com

Vice President Kamala Harris attends a virtual meeting with mayors from the African American Mayors Association, Wednesday, Feb. 10, 2021, from the South Court Auditorium on the White House complex. (AP Photo/Jacquelyn Martin)  **FILE**
Vice President Kamala Harris attends a virtual meeting with mayors from the African American Mayors Association, Wednesday, Feb. 10, 2021, from the South Court Auditorium on the White House complex. (AP Photo/Jacquelyn Martin) **FILE** more >

Vice President Kamala Harris held her second call with a foreign leader this week, without President Joe Biden present.

Former Vice President Mike Pence rarely took direct calls with foreign leaders — that was the role of then-President Donald J. Trump, who spoke on his own behalf.

When Mr. Biden invited Republican senators to the White House to reach a bipartisan deal on coronavirus relief this month, it was his chief of staff, not the president, who set the tone of the meeting.

Mr. Biden was “very engaged and well-prepared” for the meeting, Sen. Kevin Cramer told The Hill, “but I also heard that his chief of staff stood at the back of the room and shook his head ‘no’ for every [Republican] point,” the North Dakota Republican said.

Not surprisingly, after the meeting, Biden Press Secretary Jen Psaki said the White House was going to push through their relief package, even if it failed to draw Republican support. This is not at all the bipartisan approach Mr. Biden promised to deliver on the campaign trail.

With Ms. Harris taking a lead in diplomacy and White House Chief of Staff Ron Klain dominating the outcome of White House meetings, one has to wonder: Who is calling the shots at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue?

Is it possible Mr. Biden is merely a figurehead, and Ms. Harris and Mr. Biden‘s staff are the ones setting the policy agenda and running his White House?

It certainly seems so.

“The President himself would tell you that we keep him pretty busy, and he has a full schedule this week,” Ms. Psaki told reporters in a Feb. 8th press briefing. Note the phrasing, “we” the staff, keep the president busy.

When Ms. Psaki punished Deputy Press Secretary TJ Ducklo after reports he threatened a female reporter, Ms. Psaki noted she didn’t discuss the action with President Biden, nor was she aware if the president even knew of Mr. Ducklo’s misdeeds.

Why would that be? It was the president himself who said last month: “If you’re ever working with me and I hear you treat another colleague with disrespect, talk down to someone, I promise you I will fire you on the spot.”

However, Mr. Ducklo wasn’t fired on the spot, he only resigned after reports of his actions went public. Why wasn’t President Biden informed at the get-go if he was so passionate about maintaining a respectful staff?

It’s Ms. Psaki’s job to speak for the president, but one has to wonder, how often does she actually speak with him? Where does she get her marching orders?

In a town hall this week, President Biden said there was “miscommunication” when Ms. Psaki issued back-to-school guidance from the White House podium declaring the Biden administration’s goal of reopening schools in their first 100 days was more than 50% of schools being open at least one day a week.

“No, that’s not true. That’s what was reported; that’s not true. There was a mistake in the communication,” President Biden told CNN’s Anderson Cooper.

So, did Ms. Psaki just make up those figures? Her guidance clearly didn’t come from the president himself.

The Biden campaign was always a tightly scripted affair, with staff limiting his exposure to the American public. When then-presidential candidate Biden would attend an outside event, he regularly read off a teleprompter and took no questions. During the rare “press conference,” Mr. Biden’s staff would call upon preselected reporters, who lobbed him softballs.

The Biden White House operates no differently. More questions should be focused on who behind the scenes is pulling the strings, and less on the president himself. For that’s where the true power lies, and real policies will be crafted.

Source: Where’s Biden? VP Harris takes solo calls with foreign leaders; staff runs meetings

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