14:19 In 2Co 11:23–25, Paul may be referring to this event of stoning—a severe bodily trauma. He was left for dead.
14:19 what promotes peace The Greek phrase used here, ta tēs eirēnēs, refers to actions that do not cause hostility but create harmonious relationship between believers.
14:19 Thus another principle emerges. Instead of bickering over inconsequential matters, we should make every effort to maintain peace and harmony in the Christian fellowship. Instead of stumbling others by insisting on our rights, we should strive to build up others in their most holy faith.
14:19 “let us pursue” This term, diōkō, an OT idiom common in the Septuagint and also common in Paul’s writings, means “to follow eagerly” or “endeavor earnestly to acquire.” Paul uses this word in Rom. 9:30, 31; 12:13; and here in the sense of “pursue,” but in 12:14 he uses it for those who persecute believers (cf. 1 Cor. 4:12; even himself, 15:9; 2 Cor. 4:9; Gal. 1:13, 23; Phil. 3:6).
This is either a PRESENT ACTIVE INDICATIVE (MSS א, A, B, F, G, L & P) or a PRESENT ACTIVE SUBJUNCTIVE (MSS C, D) used in the sense of an IMPERATIVE. The UBS puts the SUBJUNCTIVE in its text, but gives it a “D” rating (with great difficulty).
Notice the things Christians should pursue.
- hospitality, 12:13
- the things that make for peace and the building up of one another, 14:19
- love, 1 Cor. 14:1
- Christlikeness, Phil. 3:12, 14
- what is good for one another and for all men, 1 Thess. 5:15
- righteousness, godliness, faith, love, perseverance, and gentleness, 1 Tim. 6:11
- righteousness, faith, love, and peace with those who call on the Lord from a pure heart, 2 Tim. 2:22
© “for peace and the building up of one another” This should be the believer’s goal in all things (cf. Ps. 34:14; Heb. 12:14). One’s personal freedom and theological understanding must lead to the stability and growth of the body of Christ (cf. 15:2; 1 Cor. 6:12; 14:26; Eph. 4:12). See Special Topic: Edify at 15:2.
19. Let us then pursue the things that lead to peace and to mutual edification.
Note the following:
- Peace is a gift which God in Christ imparts to the church (John 14:27; 16:33; 20:19, 21, 26; Rom. 15:33; 16:20: 2 Cor. 13:11). He is “the God of peace” (Phil. 4:9; 1 Thess. 5:23; 2 Thess. 3:16). Therefore genuine peace is “the gift of God” (Phil. 4:7).
This does not mean, however, that we can take this peace for granted. On the contrary, here in 14:19 we are being reminded that it is our duty to “pursue the things that make for peace.” This is in line with the thinking of Peter (1 Peter 3:11), of the author of the epistle to the Hebrews (12:14), and, much earlier, of the Psalmist (34:14).
- Mutual edification. This expression shows that Paul conceives of the church as being an edifice. This implies that it is a united body. However, this edifice or building must not be thought of as being finished. No, it is constantly rising (Eph. 4:16). Even the individual stones are anything but static. If matters are as they should be, the stones are in the process of being made more and more beautiful. Moreover, they are living stones! (1 Peter 2:5).
The main building material is love (Eph. 4:16). This is even more important than liberty. “Be careful that the exercise of your liberty does not become a stumbling block to the weak” (1 Cor. 8:9). In fact, love is even better than knowledge. “Knowledge puffs up, but love builds up” (1 Cor. 8:1).
19. Let us then pursue. The contextual sense favours the subjunctive diōkōmen rather than the indicative diōkomen, ‘we pursue’ (cf. 5:1, where the indicative is the more probable reading).
For mutual upbuilding. To ‘build up the common life’ (neb).
19 After his “indicative” interlude, Paul turns back to “imperative,” exhorting the Roman Christians to put into practice in their relationships with each other the principles of the kingdom that he has just set forth (vv. 17–18). This verse, then, introduces the concluding section of commands in this paragraph (vv. 19–23), a section that matches, in both structure and, to a lesser extent, content, the opening series of exhortations (vv. 13–16). Having made “peace” a basic feature of the kingdom of God (v. 17), Paul now exhorts the Roman Christians to “pursue” “those things that make for peace.”638 This “peace,” more clearly here than in v. 17, is horizontal: peace with other Christians. As v. 20 makes clear, Paul is still addressing the strong: he calls on them to maintain the kind of attitude and behavior with respect to the matters of dispute in the Roman church that will foster harmony between the two factions. Paul exhorts them also to pursue “those things that make for edification of one another.” Paul probably is thinking more of the edification, or “building up,” of the church as a whole than of the edification of individual believers.640 “Those things” that edify the church are probably, then, a more specific way of describing “those things” that lead to peace. The strong believers will foster peace in the community by making the interests of the church as a whole their priority.
19 The entire church is urged to pursue peace (harmony between the two groups being the immediate application), which alone can provide the atmosphere in which “mutual edification” can take place. It will be recalled that oikodomē “(GK 3869, lit., “building up”) was Paul’s key word in dealing with the problems created by the manifestation of spiritual gifts in the Corinthian situation (1 Co 14:5, 12, 26). Mutual edification implies that the strong, despite their tendency to look down on the weak, may actually learn something from them. It may be that they will come to appreciate loyalty to a tender conscience and begin to search their own hearts to discover that they have cared more about maintaining their position than about loving those who are weaker. Through the fresh manifestation of love by the strong, the weak will be lifted in spirit and renewed in faith and life.
 MacDonald, W. (1995). Believer’s Bible Commentary: Old and New Testaments. (A. Farstad, Ed.) (p. 1737). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.
 Moo, D. J. (2018). The Letter to the Romans. (N. B. Stonehouse, F. F. Bruce, G. D. Fee, & J. B. Green, Eds.) (Second Edition, pp. 875–876). Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.
 Harrison, E. F., & Hagner, D. A. (2008). Romans. In T. Longman III &. Garland, David E. (Ed.), The Expositor’s Bible Commentary: Romans–Galatians (Revised Edition) (Vol. 11, p. 210). Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.