Category Archives: Bible Questions

Questions about the Bible: What Is an Epistle? What Are the Epistles in the Bible?

 

The word epistle comes from the Greek word epistole that means “letter” or “message.” Epistles were a primary form of written communication in the ancient world, especially during New Testament times. Since many of the New Testament books were originally written as letters to churches or individuals, they are referred to as the Epistles.

An epistle would have been written on a scroll. Often, it was dictated and then reviewed by the author before being delivered by a trusted messenger. For example, 1 Peter mentions that it was Peter’s letter written down by Silvanus, or Silas (1 Peter 5:12). Timothy was involved in the writing and delivery of several of the apostle Paul’s letters (Colossians 1:1; 1 Thessalonians 1:1; Philemon 1:1), although Paul signed each one to verify that he was the author (Galatians 6:1).

Epistles also generally followed a familiar format. Most of Paul’s letters begin with an introduction that identifies his name and those of any associates, mentions his audience, and gives a greeting. The introduction is followed by the main body of the letter, and the epistles often conclude with a general blessing and personal notes to individuals within the recipient church.

The Epistles of the Bible are all found in the New Testament. They include 21 of the New Testament’s 27 books, extending from Romans to Jude. Thirteen of these Epistles were written by the apostle Paul: Romans, 1 and 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1 and 2 Thessalonians, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, and Philemon. Within this group of Pauline Epistles is a subgroup labeled the Prison Epistles (Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, and Philemon) so-called because they were written during Paul’s two-year house arrest in Rome (Acts 28:30–31). The Pastoral Epistles (1 and 2 Timothy and Titus) were written to church leaders and include many teachings regarding practices within the early church.

Following these writings are eight General Epistles (sometimes called Catholic Epistles, since they were written to a “universal” audience) that include Hebrews, James, 1 and 2 Peter, 1, 2, and 3 John, and Jude. The author of Hebrews is unknown (though many have historically attributed it to Paul or one of Paul’s associates). James was one of the earliest New Testament writings and was written by James, the half-brother of Jesus (1 Corinthians 15:7). The apostle Peter wrote 1 and 2 Peter. The apostle John (the same author of the Gospel of John and Revelation) wrote 1 John, 2 John, and 3 John. The short Epistle of Jude was written by Jude, another half-brother of Jesus (Jude 1:1).

All of the known authors of the Epistles are either an apostle (Paul, Peter, John) or a family member of Jesus (James, Jude). Each of these individuals had a unique calling from the Lord Jesus that included writing letters to others. These letters, inspired by the Holy Spirit, are preserved as part of the New Testament’s writings today.[1]

 

[1] Got Questions Ministries. (2010). Got Questions? Bible Questions Answered. Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software.

Questions about the Bible: What Is the Torah?

 

Torah is a Hebrew word meaning “to instruct.” The Torah refers to the five books of Moses in the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy). The Torah was written approximately 1400 BC. Traditionally, the Torah is handwritten on a scroll by a “sofer” (scribe). This type of document is called a “Sefer Torah.” A modern printing of the Torah in book form is called a “Chumash” (related to the Hebrew word for the number 5).

Here is a brief description of the five books of the Torah:

Genesis: This first book of the Torah includes 50 chapters and covers the time period from the creation of all things to the time of Joseph’s death and burial. It includes the account of creation (chapters 1–2), the beginning of human sin (chapter 3), Noah and the ark (chapters 6–9), the tower of Babel (chapters 10–11), the lives of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and an extended narrative of the life of Joseph.

Exodus: This second book of the Torah includes 40 chapters and covers the period from Jewish slavery in Egypt until the glory of the Lord descended upon the completed tabernacle in the wilderness. It includes the birth of Moses, the plagues of Egypt, the exodus of the Jewish people from Egypt, the crossing of the Red Sea, and the giving of the Law to Moses upon Mount Sinai.

Leviticus: This third book of the Torah includes 27 chapters and consists largely of the laws regarding sacrifices, offerings, and festivals among the people of Israel.

Numbers: This fourth book of the Torah includes 36 chapters and covers a span of about 40 years as the Israelites wandered in the wilderness. Numbers provides a census of the people of Israel and some details about their journey toward the Promised Land.

Deuteronomy: This fifth book of the Torah includes 34 chapters and is called “Deuteronomy” based on a Greek word meaning “second law.” In the book, Moses repeats the Law for the new generation who would enter the Promised Land. Deuteronomy describes the transition of leadership sacerdotally (from Aaron to his sons) and nationally (from Moses to Joshua).

The Torah’s five books have formed the basis of Judaism’s teachings from the time of Moses. Later biblical writers, including Samuel, David, Isaiah, and Daniel, would frequently refer back to the Law’s teachings. The teachings of the Torah are frequently summarized by citing Deuteronomy 6:4–5, called the Shema (or “saying”): “Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God, the LORD is one. You shall love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your might.” Jesus called this the “first and greatest commandment” (Matthew 22:38).

The Torah is considered the inspired Word of God by both Jews and Christians alike. Christians, however, see Jesus Christ as the fulfillment of the Messianic prophecies and believe the Law was fulfilled in Christ. Jesus taught, “Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them” (Matthew 5:17).[1]

 

[1] Got Questions Ministries. (2010). Got Questions? Bible Questions Answered. Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software.

Questions about the Bible: What Are the Books of the Bible? What Does It Mean that the Bible Is Composed of Different Books?

 

The Holy Bible is an anthology of writings that includes 66 books in English editions. The Bible consists of two parts, the Old Testament and New Testament. The Old Testament includes 39 books, and the New Testament includes 27 books.

In the Old Testament, there are four major divisions of books. The first division is the Pentateuch, which comprises Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy.

The second division is called the Historical Books and includes twelve writings: Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1 and 2 Samuel, 1 and 2 Kings, 1 and 2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther.

The third division is called the Poetical Books (or Wisdom Books) and contains Job, Psalms, Proverbs, and the Song of Solomon (or Song of Songs).

The fourth division is called the Prophetic Books and includes five Major Prophets (Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Ezekiel, and Daniel) and twelve Minor Prophets (Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi).

The New Testament also includes four major divisions. The first division is the Gospels, which comprises Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John.

The second division includes the Historical Book, the book of Acts.

The third division is the Epistles. These include the thirteen Pauline Epistles (Romans, 1 and 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1 and 2 Thessalonians, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, and Philemon) and the eight General Epistles (Hebrews, James, 1 and 2 Peter, 1, 2, and 3 John, and Jude).

The fourth division includes the Prophetic Book, the book of Revelation.

These 66 books were written over approximately 1,400 years by 40 different authors in Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek. The writings were affirmed by early church leaders (Jewish leaders in the case of the Old Testament writings). The 66 books of the Bible are the inspired words of God that are used to make disciples (Matthew 28:18–20) and develop believers today (2 Timothy 3:16–17). The Bible was not created by mere human wisdom but was inspired by God (2 Peter 1:20–21) and will last forever (Matthew 23:35).

While the Bible addresses many topics, its central message is that the Jewish Messiah, Jesus Christ, came into the world to provide the way of salvation for all people (John 3:16). It is only through the Jesus Christ of the Bible that a person can be saved (John 14:16; Acts 4:12). “Faith comes from hearing the message, and the message is heard through the word about Christ” (Romans 10:17).[1]

 

[1] Got Questions Ministries. (2010). Got Questions? Bible Questions Answered. Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software.

Questions about the Bible: What Are the Most Famous/Important Questions in the Bible?

 

There are many, many questions in the Bible. It is difficult to give a precise number because ancient Hebrew and Koine Greek did not use punctuation—we can’t just pull out the Dead Sea Scrolls and count the question marks! Often, it is difficult to know if a sentence is truly intended to be a question. But Bible scholars estimate that there are approximately 3,300 questions in the Bible.

This list of questions in the Bible is definitely not complete. It is simply a survey of some of the most famous and important questions in the Bible.

“Did God really say …?” (Genesis 3:1)

This is the first question in the Bible and also the first instance of someone questioning God’s Word. Satan tempts Eve to doubt God’s Word. Eve responds by adding to God’s Word: “And you must not touch it.” God said do not eat from the tree. He did not say do not touch the tree or its fruit. Adam and Eve respond to Satan’s question by disobeying God’s Word. It was all downhill from there. And it all started with a little question.

“Where are you?” (Genesis 3:9)

This is the first question asked by God in the Bible. Of course, God knew exactly where Adam and Eve were physically located. The question was for their benefit. God was essentially asking, “You disobeyed me; how is that working out for you? Did things turn out like you wanted or how I predicted?” The question also shows the heart of God, which is the heart of a shepherd seeking out the lost lambs in order to bring them into the fold. Jesus would later come “to seek and to save the lost” (Luke 19:10).

“Am I my brother’s keeper?” (Genesis 4:9)

This was Cain’s question in response to God’s question of where Abel was. Beyond the fact that Cain had just murdered his brother, Cain was expressing the feeling we all have when we do not want to care about or look after other people. Are we our brother’s keeper? Yes, we are. Does this mean we have to know where they are and what they are doing 24/7? No. But, we should be invested enough in other people to notice when something seems to be out of place. We should care enough to intervene, if necessary.

“Will not the Judge of all the earth do right?” (Genesis 18:25)

Yes, the Judge of the earth always does right. Abraham asked this question in his appeal to God to spare the righteous and protect them from judgment. If something God does seems unjust, then we are misunderstanding it. When we question God’s justice, it is because our sense of justice is warped. When we say, “I do not understand how a good and just God can allow such-and-such a thing,” it is because we do not correctly understand what it means to be a good and just God. Many people think they have a better understanding of justice than God.

“Are you still maintaining your integrity? Curse God and die!” (Job 2:9)

The entire book of Job resounds with this question from Job’s wife. Through it all, Job did maintain his integrity. Job’s “friends” repeatedly say, “Job, you must have done something really bad for God to do this to you.” God rebukes Job’s friends for attacking Job and for presuming on God’s sovereign will. Then God rebukes Job by reminding him that only God is perfect in all His ways. Included in God’s presentation of His greatness are many questions: “Where were you when I laid the earth’s foundation?” (Job 38:4).

“If a man die, shall he live again?” (Job 14:14, ESV)

Barring the return of Christ in our lifetimes, we will all die someday. Is there life after death? Everyone wonders about this question at some point. Yes, there is life after death, and everyone will experience it. It is simply a matter ofwherewe will exist. Do all paths lead to God? In a way, yes. We will all stand before God after we die (Hebrews 9:27). No matter what path a man takes, hewillmeet God after death. “Multitudes who sleep in the dust of the earth will awake: some to everlasting life, others to shame and everlasting contempt” (Daniel 12:2).

“How can a young person stay on the path of purity?” (Psalm 119:9)

The answer: by living according to God’s Word. When we “hide” God’s Word in our hearts, the Word keeps us from sin (Psalm 119:11). The Bible does not tell us everything. It does not contain the answer to every question. But the Bible does tell us everything we need to know to live the Christian life (2 Peter 1:3). God’s Word tells us our purpose and instructs us how to fulfill that purpose. The Bible gives us the means and the end. God’s Word is “useful for teaching, rebuking, correcting, and training in righteousness, so that the servant of God may be thoroughly equipped for every good work” (2 Timothy 3:16–17).

“Whom shall I send? And who will go for us?” (Isaiah 6:8)

The correct answer is spoken by Isaiah: “Here am I. Send me!” Far too often, our answer is, “Here am I—but send someone else.” Isaiah 6:8 is a popular verse to use in connection with international missions. But, in context, God was not asking for someone to travel to the other side of the planet. God was asking for someone to deliver His message to the Israelites. God wanted Isaiah to declare the truth to the people he rubbed shoulders with every day, his own people, his family, his neighbors, his friends.

“Lord, how many times shall I forgive my brother or sister who sins against me? Up to seven times?” (Matthew 18:21)

Forgiveness is tough. Peter’s suggestion of seven-fold forgiveness probably seemed, to him, to be superbly gracious. Jesus’ answer showed how feeble our forgiveness usually is. We are to forgive because God has forgiven us of so much more (Colossians 3:13). We forgive not because a person deserves it. “Deserve” has nothing to do with grace. We forgive because it’s the right thing to do. That person might not deserve our forgiveness, but neither did we deserve God’s, and God forgave us anyway.

“What shall I do then with Jesus?” (Matthew 27:22)

This was Pilate’s question to the crowd gathered at Jesus’ trial. Their answer: “Crucify Him!” Their shout a few days earlier had been different: “Hosanna to the Son of David! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord!” (Matthew 21:9). It is amazing how unfulfilled expectations and a little peer pressure can change public opinion. In first-century Jerusalem, people who had an errant view of Jesus and His mission rejected Him; so, today, people who come to the Christian faith with an errant understanding of who Christ is will eventually turn away. We must make sure we accurately present who Jesus is and what Christianity is all about when we share our faith.

“Who do you say I am?” (Matthew 16:15)

This question, from Jesus, is one of the most important that a person will ever answer. For most people, He is a good teacher. For some He is a prophet. For others He is a legend. Peter’s answer, “You are the Messiah, the Son of the living God,” is the correct answer (Matthew 16:16). C. S. Lewis addresses the issue of the various understandings of who Jesus is in his bookMere Christianity:

“I am trying here to prevent anyone saying the really foolish thing that people often say about Him: I’m ready to accept Jesus as a great moral teacher, but I don’t accept his claim to be God. That is the one thing we must not say. A man who was merely a man and said the sort of things Jesus said would not be a great moral teacher. He would either be a lunatic—on the level with the man who says he is a poached egg—or else he would be the Devil of Hell. You must make your choice. Either this man was, and is, the Son of God, or else a madman or something worse. You can shut him up for a fool, you can spit at him and kill him as a demon or you can fall at his feet and call him Lord and God, but let us not come with any patronizing nonsense about his being a great human teacher. He has not left that open to us. He did not intend to.”

“What good is it for someone to gain the whole world, yet forfeit their soul?” (Mark 8:36)

If the cost is one’s soul, then whatever is gained—even the whole world—is good for nothing. Sadly, “nothing” is what the vast majority of people strive after—the things of this world. To lose one’s soul has two meanings. First, the more obvious meaning is that one loses his soul for eternity, experiencing eternal death in hell. However, seeking to gain the whole world will also cause you to lose your soul in a different way, during this life. You will never experience the abundant life that is available through Jesus Christ (John 10:10). Solomon gave himself over to pleasure and denied himself nothing, yet he said, “Everything was meaningless, a chasing after the wind; nothing was gained” (Ecclesiastes 2:10–11).

“Good teacher, what must I do to inherit eternal life?” (Luke 18:18) and “What must I do to be saved?” (Acts 16:30)

It is interesting to see the very different responses of Jesus and Paul to what was essentially the same question. Jesus, knowing the self-righteous mindset of the rich young ruler, told him to obey the commandments. The man onlythoughthe was righteous; Jesus knew that materialism and greed were preventing the man from truly seeking salvation. The man first needed to understand that he was a sinner in need of a Savior. Paul, recognizing that the Philippian jailer was ready to be saved, declared, “Believe in the Lord Jesus Christ and you will be saved.” The jailer believed, and his family followed him in accepting Jesus as Savior. So, recognizing where a person is at in his or her spiritual journey can impact how we answer someone’s questions and change the starting point in our presentation of the gospel.

“How can someone be born when they are old? Surely they cannot enter a second time into their mother’s womb to be born!” (John 3:4)

This question came from Nicodemus when Jesus told him that he needed to be born again. People today still misunderstand what being born again means. Most everyone understands that being born again is not a reference to a second physical birth. However, most fail to understand the full implication of the term. Becoming a Christian—becoming born again—is beginning an entirely new life. It is moving from a state of spiritual death to a state of spiritual life (John 5:24). It is becoming a new creation (2 Corinthians 5:17). Being born again is notaddingsomething to your existing life; it is radicallyreplacingyour existing life.

“Shall we go on sinning so that grace may increase?” (Romans 6:1)

We are saved by grace (Ephesians 6:8). When we place our faith in Jesus Christ, all of our sins are forgiven and we are guaranteed eternal life in heaven. Salvation is God’s gift of grace. Does this mean that a Christian can live however he or she wants and still be saved? Yes.Buta true Christian willnotlive “however he or she wants.” A Christian has a new Master and does not serve himself any more. A Christian will grow spiritually, progressively, in the new life God has given him. Grace is not a license to sin. Willful, unrepentant sin in a person’s life makes a mockery of grace and calls into question that person’s salvation (1 John 3:6). Yes, there are times of failure and rebellion in a Christian’s life. And, no, sinless perfection is not possible this side of glory. But the Christian is to live out of gratitude for God’s grace, not take advantage of God’s grace. The balance is found in Jesus’ words to the woman taken in adultery. After refusing to condemn her, He said, “Go now and leave your life of sin” (John 8:11).

“If God is for us, who can be against us?” (Romans 8:31)

Children of God will face opposition in this world (John 15:18). The devil and his demons oppose us. Many people in the world oppose us. The philosophies, values, and priorities of the world stand against us. In terms of our earthly lives, we can be overcome, defeated, even killed. But, in terms of eternity, God has promised that we will overcome (1 John 5:4). What is the worst thing that could possibly happen to us in this world? Death. For those who are born of God, what happens after death? Eternity in the most glorious place imaginable.

There are many other great questions in the Bible. Questions from seekers, questions from scoffers, questions from discouraged believers, and questions from God. Don’t be afraid to ask questions, but be ready to accept God’s answer when it comes.[1]

 

[1] Got Questions Ministries. (2010). Got Questions? Bible Questions Answered. Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software.

Questions about the Bible: What Are the Modern Equivalents of Biblical Weights and Measures?

 

The use of weights and measurements was common in ancient times, just like it is today. The problem is that the words used for various measurements were usually specific to that culture. Today, most people don’t know what a “shekel” is or what is the difference between a “furlong” and a “fathom.” Some Bible translations have replaced the archaic words with modern equivalents or approximations. Other translations simply transliterate the Greek and Hebrew words for the measurements.

Below are several terms and their approximated equivalents in both metric and imperial measurements. Since some ancient terms varied by area, we have differentiated Greek and Hebrew measurements.

Weights:

Hebrew: Talent (3,000 shekels or 60 minas, sometimes translated “100 pounds”) 34.272 kg 75.6 lbs Mina (50 shekels, sometimes translated “pound”) 571.2 g 1.26 lbs Shekel 11.424 g 0.403 oz Pim (2/3 shekel?) 7.616 g 0.258 oz Beca (1/2 shekel) 5.712 g. 201 oz Gerah (1/20 shekel) 0.571 g 0.02 oz

Greek: Litra (30 shekels, sometimes translated “pound”) 0.4 kg 12 oz Talent 40 kg 88 lbs Mina 571.2 g 1.26 lbs

Linear Measurements:

Hebrew: Reed (6 cubits) 2.7 m 8 3/4 ft or 3 yds Cubit (2 spans, sometimes translated “yard,” “half a yard,” or “foot”) 0.5 m 18 in. Span (1/2 cubit or 3 handbreadths) 23 cm 9 in. Handbreadth (1/6 cubit, 1/3 span, or 4 fingers, sometimes translated “3 or 4 inches”) 8 cm 3 in. Finger 1.8 cm 0.73 in.

Ezekiel’s Cubit (found in Ezekiel 40:5): Reed (6 of Ezekiel’s cubits) 3.1 m 10 ft, 2.4 in. Cubit (7 handbreadths) 0.5 m 20.4 in.

Greek: Milion (8 stadia, sometimes translated “mile”) 1.5 km 1,620 yds or 0.9 mi Stadion (1/8 milion or 400 cubits, sometimes translated “mile,” “furlong,” or “race”) 185 m 1/8 mi Kalamos (6 cubits, sometimes translated “rod,” “reed,” or “measuring rod”) 3 m 3 1/3 yds Fathom (4 cubits, sometimes translated “6 feet”) 2 m 2 yds Cubit (sometimes translated “yard,” “half a yard,” or “foot”) 0.5 m 18 in.

Dry Measures:

Hebrew: Kor (10 ephahs, sometimes translated “cor,” “homer,” “sack,” “measures,” “bushels”) 220 L 5.16 bsh or 200 qts Letek (5 ephahs, sometimes translated “half homer” or “half sack”) 110 L 2.68 bsh Ephah / Bath (10 omers, sometimes translated “bushel,” “peck,” “deal, “part,” “measure,” or “6 or 7 pints”) 22 L 3/5 bsh Seah (1/3 ephah, sometimes translated “measure,” “peck,” or “large amount”) 7.3 L 7 qts Omer / Issaron (1/10 ephah, sometimes translated “tenth of a deal” or “six pints”) 2 L 2.09 qts Cab (1/18 ephah, sometimes translated “cab”) 1 L 1 qt

Greek: Koros (10 ephahs, sometimes translated “sack,” “measure,” “bushel,” or “500 quartsbus”) 525 L 14.9 bsh Modios (4 omers, sometimes translated “bushel,” “bowl,” “peck,” “corn-measure,” or “meal-tub”) 9 L 1 pk or 1/4 bsh Saton (1/3 ephah, sometimes translated “measure,” “peck,” or “large amount”) 7.3 L 7 qts Choinix (1/18 ephah, sometimes translated “measure” or “quart”) 1 L 1 qt Xestes (1/2 cab, sometimes translated “pot,” “pitcher,” “kettle,” “copper bowl,” or “vessels of bronze”) 0.5 L 1 1/6 pts

Liquid Measures:

Hebrew: Cor / Homer 208 L 55 gal Bath (1 ephah, sometimes translated “gallon,” “barrel,” or “liquid measure”) 22 L 5.5 gal Hin (1/6 bath, sometimes translated “pints”) 4 L 1 gal (4 qts) Log (1/72 bath, sometimes translated “pint” or “cotulus”) 0.3 L 0.67 pt

Greek: Metretes (10 hins, sometimes translated “firkins” or “gallons”) 39 L 10 gal Batos (1 ephah, sometimes translated “gallon,” “barrel,” or “measure”) 22 L 6 gal Xestes (1/8 hin, sometimes translated “pot,” “pitcher,” “kettle,” “copper bowl,” or “vessel of bronze”) 0.5 L 1 1/6 pts

Coins and Monies: Denarius / Denarion: a day’s wage (“penny” in KJV) Daric / Drachma / Dram: a coin weighing 1/4 oz or 8.5 g Lepta: the smallest Greek copper coin; of unknown weight (translated “mite” in KJV) Kodrantess: the smallest Roman copper coin; of unknown weight (translated “mite” in KJV)[1]

 

[1] Got Questions Ministries. (2010). Got Questions? Bible Questions Answered. Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software.

Questions about the Bible: What Is the Critical Text?

 

The Critical Text is a Greek text of the New Testament that draws from a group of ancient Greek manuscripts and their variants in an attempt to preserve the most accurate wording possible. Other Greek texts besides the Critical Text used for producing English Bibles are the Majority Text and the Textus Receptus.

Until the late 1800s, the Textus Receptus, or the “received text,” was the foremost Greek text from which the New Testament was derived. (The King James Version and New King James Version are based on the Textus Receptus.) In 1881 two prominent scholars, Brooke Foss Westcott and Fenton J. A. Hort, printed their New Testament in Greek, later known as the Critical Text. Dismissing the Textus Receptus as an inferior text rife with errors, Westcott and Hort compiled a new Greek text, with special focus on two fourth-century manuscripts, the Codex Vaticanus and the Codex Sinaiticus.

As a result of Westcott and Hort’s work, their Critical Text became the standard Greek text used for modern interpretation and translation for nearly two generations. The Critical Text was the one chiefly used for the English Revised Version and the later American Standard Version. Today, the updated and revised Critical Text is the Greek manuscript basis for the New International Version, the New American Standard Bible, the English Standard Version, and virtually every other modern English translation of the Bible.

Though the Critical Text was not without its faults, it has been accepted, on the whole, as being the most accurate in duplicating the original text of the New Testament. Modern biblical scholars have adjusted and adapted Westcott and Hort’s theories of translation, which can be summarized by nine critical rules of biblical interpretation, including the following:

  • The reading is less likely to be original if it shows a disposition to smooth away difficulties.
  • Readings are approved or rejected by reason of the quality, and not the number of supporting witnesses.
  • The preferred reading best explains the existence of other readings.
  • The preferred reading makes the best sense; that is, it best conforms to the grammar and is most congruous with the purport of the rest of the sentence and of the larger context.

With the discovery of new manuscript evidence, the Critical Text has been revised many times. Currently, the Nestle-Aland text (now in its twenty-eighth edition) is the critical text in common use, along with the Greek New Testament published by the United Bible Societies (UBS).

In summary, the Critical Text is an effort to discover the wording of the original Greek manuscripts of the New Testament by comparing/contrasting all of the existing manuscripts and using logic and reason to determine the most likely original readings. While no human effort will ever produce an absolutely perfect copy of the original Greek manuscripts of the New Testament, the Critical Text is very likely extremely close to what the New Testament authors wrote.[1]

 

 

[1] Got Questions Ministries. (2010). Got Questions? Bible Questions Answered. Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software.

Questions about the Bible: What Is the Story of the New Testament?

 

Four hundred years after God spoke to the prophet Malachi, God spoke again. The message was that the prophecy of Malachi 3:1 was soon to be fulfilled, that a prophet was to prepare the way for the Lord. The Messiah was on His way.

That prophet was named John. The Messiah was named Jesus, born to a virgin named Mary. Jesus grew up as an observant Jew. When He was about thirty years old, He began His public ministry to Israel. John had been preaching of the coming Messianic Kingdom and baptizing those who believed his message and repented of their sins. When Jesus came to be baptized, God spoke audibly and the Holy Spirit came visibly upon Jesus, identifying Him as the promised Messiah. From that time on, John’s ministry waned, having fulfilled its purpose of introducing Christ to the world (Matthew 3).

Jesus called twelve disciples from various walks of life, empowered them for service, and began training them. As Jesus traveled and preached, He healed the sick and performed many other miracles that authenticated His message. Jesus’ early ministry saw tremendous growth. Vast crowds, awed by the miracles and amazed at His teaching, followed Him wherever He went (Luke 9:1; Matthew 19:2).

Not everyone was enthralled by Jesus, however. The political and religious leaders of the Jewish community took offense to Jesus’ teaching that their rules and traditions were not the path to salvation. They confronted Jesus many times, and Jesus openly spoke of them as hypocrites. The Pharisees observed Jesus’ miracles but attributed them to the work of the devil rather than giving God the glory (Matthew 12:24; 15:3; Matthew 23).

The crowds who followed Jesus grew sparser, as it became apparent that Jesus had no intention of making Himself a king or of overthrowing the Roman oppressors. John was arrested and eventually executed in prison. Jesus began to focus more on His twelve disciples, most of whom acknowledged that He was the Son of God. Only one did not believe; his name was Judas, and he actively began to seek a way to betray Jesus to the authorities (John 6:66; Matthew 16:16; 26:16).

In His final trip to Jerusalem, Jesus celebrated Passover with His disciples. That night, during a time of prayer, Judas led an armed mob to Jesus. Jesus was arrested and dragged through a series of mock trials. He was condemned to death by crucifixion by the Roman governor, who nevertheless admitted that Jesus was an innocent man. Jesus was crucified. At the moment of His death, there was a great earthquake. Jesus’ dead body was taken from the cross and hurriedly laid in a nearby tomb (Luke 22:14–23, 39–53; Mark 15:15, 25; Matthew 27:51; John 19:42).

On the third day after Jesus’ death, Jesus’ tomb was discovered empty, and angels announced that He had risen. Jesus then appeared in the flesh to His disciples and spent time with them during the next forty days. At the end of that time, Jesus commissioned the apostles and ascended into heaven as they watched (Luke 24:6, 24; John 21:1, 14; Acts 1:3–9).

Ten days after Jesus’ ascension to heaven, about 120 disciples were gathered in Jerusalem, praying and waiting for the Holy Spirit, who had been promised by Jesus to come. On the Day of Pentecost, the Spirit filled the disciples, giving them the ability to speak in languages they had never learned. Peter and the others preached in the streets of Jerusalem, and 3,000 people believed the message that the Lord Jesus had died and risen again. Those who believed were baptized in Jesus’ name. The church had begun (Acts 2).

The Jerusalem church continued to grow as the apostles performed miracles and taught with great power. However, the new believers soon faced persecution, spearheaded by a young Pharisee named Saul. Many believers had to leave Jerusalem, and as they went, they spread the good news of Jesus to other cities. Gatherings of believers began to spring up in other communities (Acts 2:43; 8:1, 4).

One of the places that received the gospel was Samaria. The Jerusalem church sent Peter and John to Samaria to verify the reports they had heard concerning a church there. When Peter and John arrived, they witnessed the coming of the Holy Spirit on the Samaritans in the same way that He had come upon them. Without a doubt, the church had spread to Samaria. Soon thereafter, Peter witnessed the Holy Spirit’s coming on a Roman centurion and his household; thus, the church was spreading to the Gentile world as well (Acts 8:14–17; 10:27–48).

James, one of the twelve disciples, was martyred in Jerusalem. Saul had plans to take his hatred of Christians to Damascus, but on the way Jesus appeared to him in a vision. The former persecutor of the church was transformed into an ardent preacher of Christ. A few years later, Saul/Paul became a teacher in the church in Antioch. While there, he and Barnabas were chosen by the Holy Spirit to become the world’s first “foreign missionaries,” and they left for Cyprus and Asia Minor. Paul and Barnabas suffered much persecution and difficulty on their journey, but many people were saved—including a young man named Timothy—and churches were established (Acts 9:1–22; 12:1–2; 13–14).

Back in Jerusalem, a question arose over the acceptance of Gentiles into the church. Were Gentile Christians (former pagans) to be given equal standing as Jewish Christians, who had kept the Law all their lives? More specifically, did Gentile believers have to be circumcised in order to be saved? A council met in Jerusalem to consider this question. Peter and Paul both gave testimony of how God had granted the Holy Spirit to the Gentile believers without the rite of circumcision. The council’s determination was that salvation is by grace through faith and that circumcision was not necessary for salvation (Acts 15:1–31).

Paul went on another missionary journey, accompanied this time by Silas. Along the way, Timothy joined them, as did a doctor named Luke. At the behest of the Holy Spirit, Paul and company left Asia Minor and traveled to Greece, where even more churches were established in Philippi, Thessalonica, Corinth, Ephesus, and other cities. Later, Paul went on a third missionary journey. His modus operandi was almost always the same—preach in a city’s synagogue first, presenting the gospel to the Jews in each community. Usually, he was rejected in the synagogues, and he would take the message to the Gentiles instead (Acts 15:40–21:17).

Against the warnings of friends, Paul made a trip to Jerusalem. There, he was attacked by a mob intent on killing him. He was rescued by a Roman tribune and kept in protective custody in the barracks. Paul stood trial before the Sanhedrin in Jerusalem, but the court erupted in chaos, and Paul was taken to Caesarea to stand trial before a Roman judge. After several years in Caesarea, Paul appealed to Caesar, as was his right under Roman law (Acts 21:12, 27–36; Acts 23:1–25:12).

Paul was taken to Rome as a prisoner on a ship, and Luke accompanied him. On the way, a severe storm wrecked the ship, but everyone aboard made it safely to the island of Malta. There, Paul performed miracles that caught the attention of the governor of the island. Again, the gospel spread (Acts 27:1–28:10).

When he arrived in Rome, Paul was put under house arrest. His friends could visit, and he had a certain amount of freedom to teach. Some of the Roman guards were converted, and even some of Caesar’s own household believed in Jesus (Acts 28:16, 30–31; Philippians 4:22).

While Paul was being held in Rome, the work of God continued around the Mediterranean world. Timothy ministered in Ephesus; Titus oversaw the work in Crete; Apollos served in Corinth; Peter, possibly, went to Rome (1 Timothy 1:3; Titus 1:5; Acts 19:1; 1 Peter 5:13).

Most of the apostles were martyred for their faith in Christ. The last apostle was John who, as an old man, was exiled to the island of Patmos. There, he received from the Lord Jesus messages for the churches and a vision of the end times that he recorded as the book of Revelation (Revelation 1:9, 4, 19).[1]

 

 

[1] Got Questions Ministries. (2010). Got Questions? Bible Questions Answered. Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software.

Questions about the Bible: What Are the Different Forms of Biblical Literature?

 

One of the most intriguing facts about the Bible is that, while it is God’s communication (Matthew 5:17; Mark 13:31; Luke 1:37; Revelation 22:18–19), human beings were part of the writing process. As Hebrews 1:1 says, “God spoke to our forefathers through the prophets at many times and in various ways.” The “various ways” include different literary genres. The Bible’s human writers used different forms of literature to communicate different messages at different times.

The Bible contains historical literature (1 and 2 Kings), dramatic literature (Job), legal documents (much of Exodus and Deuteronomy), song lyrics (The Song of Solomon and Psalms), poetry (most of Isaiah), wisdom literature (Proverbs and Ecclesiastes), apocalyptic literature (Revelation and parts of Daniel), short story (Ruth), sermons (as recorded in Acts), speeches and proclamations (like those of King Nebuchadnezzar in Daniel), prayers (many Psalms), parables (such as those Jesus told), fables (such as Jotham told), and epistles (Ephesians and Romans).

The different genres can overlap. Many of the psalms, for example, are also prayers. Some of the epistles contain poetry. Each type of literature has unique characteristics should be approached with due consideration. For example, Jotham’s fable (Judges 9:7–15) cannot be interpreted the same way as the Ten Commandments (Exodus 20:1–17). Interpreting poetry, with its reliance on metaphor and other poetic devices, is different from interpreting historical narrative. Please see our article on interpreting genres.

Second Peter 1:19–20 says that “men spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit.” Using today’s terminology, the Bible’s managing editor was the Holy Spirit of God. God put the mark of His authorship on each of the 66 books of the Bible, no matter what the literary genre. God “breathed” the written words (2 Timothy 3:16–17). Because mankind has the ability to understand and appreciate various forms of literature, God used many genres to communicate His Word. The reader of the Bible will discover a common purpose that unifies the parts of the collection. He will discover motifs, foreshadowing, repeated themes, and recurring characters. Through it all, he will find that the Bible is the world’s greatest literary masterpiece—and the very Word of very God.[1]

 

 

[1] Got Questions Ministries. (2010). Got Questions? Bible Questions Answered. Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software.

Questions about the Bible: How Should the Different Genres of the Bible Impact How We Interpret the Bible?

 

The Bible is a work of literature. Literature comes in different genres, or categories based on style, and each is read and appreciated differently from another. For example, to confuse a work of science fiction with a medical textbook would cause many problems—they must be understood differently. And both science fiction and a medical text must be understood differently from poetry. Therefore, accurate exegesis and interpretation takes into consideration the purpose and style of a given book or passage of Scripture. In addition, some verses are meant figuratively, and proper discernment of these is enhanced by an understanding of genre. An inability to identify genre can lead to serious misunderstanding of Scripture.

The main genres found in the Bible are these: law, history, wisdom, poetry, narrative, epistles, prophecy and apocalyptic literature. The summary below shows the differences between each genre and how each should be interpreted:

Law: This includes the books of Leviticus and Deuteronomy. The purpose of law is to express God’s sovereign will concerning government, priestly duties, social responsibilities, etc. Knowledge of Hebrew manners and customs of the time, as well as a knowledge of the covenants, will complement a reading of this material.

History: Stories and epics from the Bible are included in this genre. Almost every book in the Bible contains some history, but Genesis, Exodus, Numbers, Joshua, Judges, 1 and 2 Samuel, 1 and 2 Kings, 1 and 2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Acts are predominately history. Knowledge of secular history is crucial, as it dovetails perfectly with biblical history and makes interpretation much more robust.

Wisdom: This is the genre of aphorisms that teach the meaning of life and how to live. Some of the language used in wisdom literature is metaphorical and poetic, and this should be taken into account during analysis. Included are the books of Proverbs, Job and Ecclesiastes.

Poetry: These include books of rhythmic prose, parallelism, and metaphor, such as Song of Solomon, Lamentations and Psalms. We know that many of the psalms were written by David, himself a musician, or David’s worship leader, Asaph. Because poetry does not translate easily, we lose some of the musical “flow” in English. Nevertheless, we find a similar use of idiom, comparison and refrain in this genre as we find in modern music.

Narrative: This genre includes the Gospels, which are biographical narratives about Jesus, and the books of Ruth, Esther, and Jonah. A reader may find bits of other genres within the Gospels, such as parable (Luke 8:1–15) and discourse (Matthew 24). The book of Ruth is a perfect example of a well-crafted short story, amazing in its succinctness and structure.

Epistles: An epistle is a letter, usually in a formal style. There are 21 letters in the New Testament from the apostles to various churches or individuals. These letters have a style very similar to modern letters, with an opening, a greeting, a body, and a closing. The content of the Epistles involves clarification of prior teaching, rebuke, explanation, correction of false teaching and a deeper dive into the teachings of Jesus. The reader would do well to understand the cultural, historical and social situation of the original recipients in order to get the most out of an analysis of these books.

Prophecy and Apocalyptic Literature: The Prophetic writings are the Old Testament books of Isaiah through Malachi, and the New Testament book of Revelation. They include predictions of future events, warnings of coming judgment, and an overview of God’s plan for Israel. Apocalyptic literature is a specific form of prophecy, largely involving symbols and imagery and predicting disaster and destruction. We find this type of language in Daniel (the beasts of chapter 7), Ezekiel (the scroll of chapter 3), Zechariah (the golden lampstand of chapter 4), and Revelation (the four horsemen of chapter 6). The Prophetic and Apocalyptic books are the ones most often subjected to faulty eisegesis and personal interpretation based on emotion or preconceived bias. However, Amos 3:7 tells us, “Surely the Sovereign LORD does nothing without revealing his plan to his servants the prophets.” Therefore, we know that the truth has been told, and it can be known via careful exegesis, a familiarity with the rest of the Bible, and prayerful consideration. Some things will not be made clear to us except in the fullness of time, so it is best not to assume to know everything when it comes to prophetic literature.

An understanding of the genres of Scripture is vital to the Bible student. If the wrong genre is assumed for a passage, it can easily be misunderstood or misconstrued, leading to an incomplete and fallacious understanding of what God desires to communicate. God is not the author of confusion (1 Corinthians 14:33), and He wants us to “correctly [handle] the word of truth” (2 Timothy 2:15). Also, God wants us to know His plan for the world and for us as individuals. How fulfilling it is to come to “grasp how wide and long and high and deep” (Ephesians 3:18) is the love of God for us![1]

 

 

[1] Got Questions Ministries. (2010). Got Questions? Bible Questions Answered. Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software.

Questions about the Bible: What Is the Pseudepigrapha?

 

The pseudepigrapha are the books which attempt to imitate Scripture but which were written under false names. The term “pseudepigrapha” comes from the Greek pseudo meaning “false” and epigraphein meaning “to inscribe,” thus, “to write falsely.” The pseudepigraphical books, sometimes broadly called the Apocrypha, were written anywhere from 200 BC to AD 300. They are spurious works written by unknown authors who attempted to gain a readership by tacking on the name of a famous biblical character. Obviously, a book called the “Testament of Abraham” has a better chance of being read than the “Counterfeit Testament of an Unknown Author.”

While the pseudepigrapha may be of interest to students of history and ancient religious thought, they are not inspired by God and therefore not part of the canon of Scripture. Reasons to reject the pseudepigrapha are 1) they were written under false names. Any pretense or falsehood in a book naturally negates its claim of truthfulness. 2) They contain anachronisms and historical errors. For example, in the Apocalypse of Baruch, the fall of Jerusalem occurs “in the 25th year of Jeconiah, king of Judah.” The problem is that Jeconiah was 18 years old when he began to reign, and he only reigned 3 months (2 Kings 24:8). There is no way to reconcile the “25th year” statement with the biblical account. 3) They contain outright heresy. In the apocryphal Acts of John, for example, Jesus is presented as a spirit or phantasm who left no footprints when He walked, who could not be touched, and who did not really die on the cross.

The Apostle Paul had to deal with pseudepigrapha written in his own day. Addressing the Thessalonian church, Paul says not to be alarmed by a “letter supposed to have come from us” (2 Thessalonians 2:2). Obviously, someone had tried to mislead the believers with a forged letter imitating Paul’s style. Paul was forced to take precautions: “I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand, which is the distinguishing mark in all my letters. This is how I write” (2 Thessalonians 3:17; see also 1 Corinthians 16:21; Galatians 6:11; and Colossians 4:18).

There are many books that fall under the category of pseudepigrapha, including the Testament of Hezekiah, the Vision of Isaiah, the Books of Enoch, the Secrets of Enoch, the Book of Noah, the Apocalypse of Baruch (Baruch was Jeremiah’s scribe according to Jeremiah 36:4), the Rest of the Words of Baruch, the Psalter of Solomon, the Odes of Solomon, the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, the Testament of Adam, the Testament of Abraham, the Testament of Job, the Apocalypse of Ezra, the Prayer of Joseph, Elijah the Prophet, Zechariah the Prophet, Zechariah: Father of John, the Itinerary of Paul, the Acts of Paul, the Apocalypse of Paul, the Itinerary of Peter, the Itinerary of Thomas, the Gospel According to Thomas, the History of James, the Apocalypse of Peter, and the Epistles of Barnabas.[1]

 


[1] Got Questions Ministries. (2010). Got Questions? Bible Questions Answered. Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software.

Questions about The Bible: Hasn’t the New Testament been changed since it has been copied and recopied throughout history?

 

A common misconception is that the text of the Bible has not come down to us the way in which it was originally written. Accusations abound of zealous monks changing the biblical text throughout Church history. This issue is of the utmost importance, since an altered text would do grave damage to the credibility of the story.

As F. F. Bruce says, “The historical ‘once-for-all-ness’ of Christianity which distinguishes it from those religious and philosophical systems, which are not specially related to any particular time, makes the reliability of the writings which purport to record this revelation a question of first-rate importance” (The New Testament Documents: Are They Reliable? p. 8).

Fortunately, the problem is not a lack of evidence. There are three different types of evidence that are to be used in evaluating the New Testament text. These are the Greek manuscripts, the various versions in which the New Testament is translated, and the writings of the Church fathers.

The New Testament was originally composed in the Greek language. There are approximately 5,500 copies in existence that contain all or part of the New Testament. Although we do not possess the originals, copies exist from a very early date.

The New Testament was written from about a.d. 50 to a.d. 90. The earliest fragment (p. 52) dates about a.d. 120, with about fifty other fragments dating within 150–200 years from the time of composition.

Two major manuscripts, Codex Vaticanus (a.d. 325) and Codex Sinaiticus (a.d. 350), a complete copy, date within 250 years of the time of composition. This may seem like a long time span, but it is minimal compared to most ancient works.

The earliest copy of Caesar’s The Gallic Wars dates 1,000 years after it was written, and the first complete copy of the Odyssey by Homer dates 2,200 years after it was written. When the interval between the writing of the New Testament and earliest copies is compared to other ancient works, the New Testament proves to be much closer to the time of the original.

The 5,500 copies are far and away the most we have of any ancient work. Many ancient writings have been transmitted to us by only a handful of manuscripts (Catullus—three copies; the earliest one is 1,600 years after he wrote; Herodotus—eight copies and 1,300 years).

Not only do the New Testament documents have more manuscript evidence and close time interval between the writing and earliest copy, but they were also translated into several other languages at an early date. Translation of a document into another language was rare in the ancient world, so this is an added plus for the New Testament.

The number of copies of the versions is in excess of 18,000, with possibly as many as 25,000. This is further evidence that helps us establish the New Testament text.

Even if we did not possess the 5,500 Greek manuscripts or the 18,000 copies of the versions, the text of the New Testament could still be reproduced within 250 years from its composition. How? By the writings of the early Christians. In commentaries, letters, etc., these ancient writers quote the biblical text, thus giving us another witness to the text of the New Testament.

John Burgon has catalogued more than 86,000 citations by the early church fathers who cite different parts of the New Testament. Thus we observe that there is so much more evidence for the reliability of the New Testament text than any other comparable writings in the ancient world.

F. F. Bruce makes the following observation: “The evidence for our New Testament writings is ever so much greater than the evidence for many writings of classical authors, the authenticity of which no one dreams of questioning.”

He also states, “And if the New Testament were a collection of secular writings, their authenticity would generally be regarded as beyond all doubt” (The New Testament Documents: Are They Reliable? p. 15).

Sir Frederic Kenyon, former director and principal librarian of the British Museum, was one of the foremost experts on ancient manuscripts and their authority. Shortly before his death, he wrote this concerning the New Testament:

“The interval between the dates of original composition (of the New Testament) and the earliest extant evidence becomes so small as to be in fact negligible, and the last foundation for any doubt that the Scriptures have come down to us substantially as they were written has now been removed. Both the authenticity and the general integrity of the books of the New Testament may be regarded as finally established” (The Bible and Archaeology, pp. 288-89).[1]


[1] McDowell, J., & Stewart, D. D. (1993). Answers to tough questions. Nashville: T. Nelson Publishers.

Questions about The Bible: How Do We Know That The Bible Came From God?

 

We know that the Bible came from God for one very simple reason: Jesus told us so. It is on His authority, as the God of the universe, that we are sure that the Bible is the Word of God. He confirmed the Old Testament’s authority in His teaching, and He promised an authoritative New Testament through His disciples. The Son of God Himself assures us that the Bible is the Word of God.

Jesus Confirmed The Authority
Of The Old Testament

Jesus spoke of the whole Old Testament (Matt. 22:29), its central divisions (Luke 16:16), its individual books (Matt. 22:43; 24:15), its events (19:4–5; Luke 17:27), and even its letters and parts of letters (Matt. 5:18) as having divine authority. He called the Scriptures the Word of God (John 10:35). He said that they had been written by men moved by the Spirit when He said, “David himself said in the Holy Spirit” (Mark 12:36) and refers to events “spoken of through Daniel the prophet” (Matt. 24:15). In such statements He confirms the authorship of the most often disputed books, like Moses’ writings (Mark 7–10), Isaiah (v. 6), Daniel, and the Psalms. He also refers to the very miracles which critics reject as historical events. He cites the Creation (Luke 11:51), Adam and Eve (Matt. 19:4–5), Noah and the Flood (24:37–39), Sodom and Gomorrah (Luke 10:12), and Jonah and the great fish (Matt. 12:39–41). He said, “It is easier for heaven and earth to pass away than for one stroke of the letter of the Law to fail” (Luke 16:17). The fact that He considered the Scripture to be the final authority is seen clearly in His temptations, when He defends himself from Satan’s attacks three times with the phrase, “It is written” (Matt. 4:4ff).

Outline of Argument for the Bible

God exists (chap. 2).

The New Testament is a historically reliable document (chaps. 7, 9).

Miracles are possible (chap. 5).

Miracles confirm Jesus’ claim to be God (chap. 6).

Whatever God teaches is true (Num. 23:19; Heb. 6:18; 1 John 1:5–6).

Jesus (= God) taught that the Bible is the Word of God by confirming the Old Testament and promising the New Testament.

Therefore, the Bible is the Word of God.

What Jesus Taught about the Old Testament

1.   Authority—Matthew 22:43

2.   Reliability—Matthew 26:54

3.   Finality—Matthew 4:4, 7, 10

4.   Sufficiency—Luke 16:31

5.   Indestructibility—Matthew 5:17–18

6.   Unity—Luke 24:27, 44

7.   Clarity—Luke 24:27

8.   Historicity—Matthew 12:40

9.   Facticity (scientifically)—Matthew 19:2–5

10. Inerrancy—Matthew 22:29; John 3:12; 17:17

11. Infallibility—John 10:35

“Here,” Jesus was saying, “is the permanent, unchangeable witness of the eternal God, committed to writing for our instruction.” Such it appears to have been to Jesus’ inmost soul, quite apart from any convenience to Him in controversy. In the hour of utmost crisis and at the moment of death, words of the Scripture came to His lips: “My God, My God, why have You forsaken Me?” (Ps. 22:1; Matt. 27:46; Mark 15:34, niv) “Into Your hands I commit My spirit” (Ps. 31:5; Luke 23:46, niv).

Jesus Promised The New Testament

Jesus told His disciples just before He left them, “These things I have spoken to you while abiding with you. But the Helper, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in My name, He will teach you all things, and bring to your remembrance all that I said to you” (John 14:25–26). Jesus added, “When He, the Spirit of Truth, comes, He will guide you into all the truth; for He will not speak on His own initiative, but whatever He hears, He will speak; and He will disclose to you what is to come” (16:13). These statements promise that the teachings of Jesus will be remembered and understood, and that additional truths would be given to the apostles so that the church could be established. They set the stage for the apostolic era which began on the Day of Pentecost (Acts 2:1ff) and continued until the last of the apostles died (John, about a.d. 100).

During this period, the apostles became the agents of the complete and final revelation of Jesus Christ and He continued “to do and teach” through them (Acts 1:1). They were given the “keys to the kingdom” (Matt. 16:19) and by their hands did believers receive the Holy Spirit (Acts 8:14–15; 19:1–6). The early church built its doctrines and practices on “the foundation of the apostles” (Eph. 2:20). It followed the “apostles’ teaching” (Acts 2:42) and was bound by decisions of the apostolic council (Acts 15). Even though Paul had received his apostleship by a revelation from God, his credentials were confirmed by the apostles in Jerusalem.

Some of the New Testament writers were not apostles, though. How can we explain their authority? They used the apostolic message which was “confirmed to us by those who heard” (Heb. 2:3). Mark worked closely with Peter (1 Peter 5:13); James and Jude were closely associated with the apostles in Jerusalem and were probably Jesus’ brothers; Luke was a companion of Paul (2 Tim. 4:11) who interviewed many eyewitnesses to produce his account (Luke 1:1–4). Paul’s writings are even equated with Scripture by Peter (2 Peter 3:15–16). In each case (with the exception of Hebrews; we don’t know for sure who wrote that book), there is a definite link between the writer and the apostles who gave them information (cf. 2:3).

Now if Jesus, who was God in the flesh and always spoke the truth, said that the Old Testament was the Word of God and that the New Testament would be written by His apostles and prophets as the sole authorized agents for His message, then our entire Bible is proven to be from God. We have it on the best of authority—Jesus Christ Himself.[1]


[1] Geisler, N. L., & Brooks, R. M. (1990). When skeptics ask (pp. 142–144). Wheaton, IL: Victor Books.